Psych 4130

Psych 4130 - Term Definition plasticity the ability to...

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Term: plasticity At what age is pre-frontal cortex fully developed? Definition: the ability to change, ability of the brain to reorganize neural pathways based on new experiences 25, changes made at young age can become hard-wired and new set points can be made. Term: Charles Whitman Definition: Texas Tower Sniper golf ball sized tumor on his amygdala (controls fear and aggression) Term: biological psychology Definition: study of influence of biological and physiological systems on behaviors Term: behavior Definition: anything an organism does that involves action and response to stimulation
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Term: Dualism Definition: the idea that both body (brain) and mind exist as separate entities. Term: Epiphenomenalism Definition: idea by Thomas Hobbes, activities of brain produced the mind i.e. --> the noise of a vacuum cleaner is an epiphenomenon. It is unnecessary for sucking up dirt. Term: Monism Definition: the accepted idea where the mind and brain are considered one in the same. Term: Camillo Golgi Definition: developed a staining technique that could differentiate different parts of the brain Slice of brain mixed with silver nitrate allowed some cells to be seen under a microscope. 1% of the cells took up the stain and made visualization of neurons possible.
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Term: Santiago Ramon y Cajal Definition: used Golgi staining method in newborn animals to discover that those cells that took up the stain were individual units. also discovered receptors and synapse neurons Term: Charles Sherrington Definition: discovered three types of neurons: sensory, motor, interneuron. determined electrical pulses are not how neurons communicate Term: 3 types of neuron and descriptions (as discovered by Sherrington) Definition: Sensory- detects info from inside body or from outside world Motor- carries messages from the CNS to muscles Interneuron- connects sensory and motor neuron Term: Otto Loewi Definition: determined neurons interact with chemicals, not electricity dissected frog hearts. Found that vagus nerve did not affect heart rate, but acetylcholine did change heart rate. Chemicals, not electricity are how neurons interact.
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Term: Phineas Gage Definition: Had a pole go through his face and prefrontal cortex in a railroad accident This is how we know that prefrontal cortex deals with personality. His changed after his cortex was changed. Term: Broca's area (Paul Broca) Definition: frontal lobe structure that is responsible for speech production located in frontal lobe in cerebral cortex in telencephalon in forebrain Term: Wernicke's area (Carl Wernicke) Definition: temporal lobe structure responsible for speech comprehension. Term: Wilder Penfield Definition: famous brain surgeon, responsible for modern day formulation of "localization of function"
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Term: Electrophysiological studies Definition: EEG, lesioning in animals, Ablation studies in animals, CAT scan, MRI, fMRI, PET scan, Autoradiography, Microdialysis Term: EEG (electroencephalograph) Definition: electrodes placed on patient's scalp, used in sleep studies Term: lesioning in animals Definition:
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