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Chapter One Terms

Chapter One Terms - Term Definition Government the formal...

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Term: Government Definition: the formal vehicle through which policies are made and affairs of state are conducted Term: Virginia House of Burgesses Definition: created in 1619, was the first representative assembly in North America. 22 elected officials made laws for all colonists. Term: Social Contract Definition: an agreement among the people signifying their consent to be governed. (theoretical, not literal) Term: Mayflower Compact Definition: Document written by the Pilgrims while at sea enumerating the scope of their government and its expectations of citizens. Based on a social contract theory of government.
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Term: Social Contract Theory Definition: all individuals are free and equal by natural right. This freedom, in turn, required that all people give their consent to be governed. Theory conceived by Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. Term: Thomas Hobbes Definition: influenced by the English Civil War in his book Leviathan arguing that humanity's natural state was one of war. Government (being a monarchy) was necessary to restrain humanity's bestiality. People must give up certain rights to the government. Believed in a single ruler, to guarantee the rights of the weak against the strong.
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Term: John Locke Definition: believed that a government's major responsibility was the preservation of private property. Wrote both Second Treatise on Civil Government and Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Believed in denying the divine right of the kings to govern and argued that individuals were born equal and with natural rights that no king had the power to void. People's consent is the only basis of any one sovereign's right to rule. Governments
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