Near Eastern Studies 10 Midterm 1 Aiman - Term Definition...

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Term: Cairo Definition: Capital of Egypt, largest capital in Africa Very overpopulated (huugeeee city) League of Arab States headquarters in Cairo When a Shii group broke away from the Sunni caliphate of Egypt to show its independence, it named and established Cairo (city of war). People actually moving out of Cairo downtown. Term: "Mother of the World" Definition: thought to be first thus oldest civilization. Later civilizations looked to Egypt Long history as distinct society gives people separate Egyptian identity Lot of pride in their past and this nables them to be patient and withstand misfortunes that would crush most peoples Supposedly had the first developed language Term: Naguib Mahfouz Definition: Egyptian writer and first Arabic writer to receive the Nobel Peace Prize. Gunned down outside his home by an al-Gamaa al-Islamiya fighter.
Term: Nile Definition: River, deposits silt every year fertile soil. Flows north. Dumps into Mediterranean Term: Upper Egypt Definition: the nile starts in the south and runs up north (its backwards) so they call southern egypt--upper Egypt. Term: Lower Egypt Definition: Northern Egypt (including Cairo) Term: Nile Delta Definition: The most fertile area of land in Egypt located end of the Nile River where it empties into the Mediterranean Sea. Recently the Nile Delta is receding away since all the silt the Nile carries isn't making it to the Mediterranean. The series of dams and canals are carrying the silt and not letting it deposit into the Mediterranean.
Term: Sinai Definition: Originally belonged to Egypt, and then Israel took it, but Israel gave it back as a peaceful giving. (captured and returned to Egypt for Land for Peace) Where Moses received the ten commandments. 1967: Six Day War w/ Israel ends in Israeli Occupation of the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula 1989: Return of Taba in the Sinai Peninsula to Egyptian control Term: Herodotus Definition: "Father of History"..visited Egypt and wrote about it and about pharoahs--fictional. Term: Suez Canal Definition: "The Highway to India" is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea. Khedive Ismael's idea, built by British company and opened in November 1869 Expensive and bankrupted country, so Egypt's shares in the Suez Canal were sold to Britain.
Term: British 1882 Definition: A revolt of army officers threatened to overthrow the khedive(viceroys). The British intervened and established a de facto protectorate, keeping the khedive in office in order to avoid conflict with the Ottomans. The British protectorate lasted from 1882-1922. But after 1922, British still retained control over much of Egypt (except for local/internal affairs). In 1956, Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal and basically removed the last remnants of British rule Term: Alexandria Definition: Founded by Alexander the Great, center of Greek and Roman learning and culture Later became a center of Christianity Egypt's largest seaport, serving approximately 80% of Egypt's imports and exports.

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