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Modernist:Lebanese Nationalism:France and Britain defeated the OttomanEmpire in the First World War (1914-18) andthe Levant plus Iraq fell underoccupation. The Levant was divided into several states(Lebanon, Syria, MandatePalestine, Jordan).Due to the 1860 civil war in MountLebanon, elites in Beirut, supportedby the French, pushedfor a "Greater Lebanon"(usheringthe birth of Lebanese nationalism in 1920).Thenew state needed a nationalideology. They based it on a lengthy Lebanese historygoing back 6000 years onPhoenician heritage, and on affiliation with Europe. Thus, Lebanese nationalism is notArab anddefinitely notSyrian.Notable: The Phalange Party andtoday, The National Current of Michel Aoun.Arab Nationalism:Started in 1911, theal-Arabiya al-Fatat (YoungArabsAssociation).Later in the 1930s,one Syrian Sateh Al-Houssarielaborated onArab identity, as someone whospeaksArabic and feels being Arab.In 1944, theleague of Arab States wasestablished inAlexandria, Egypt. Then in 1947, theBa'ath socialist Arab Partywas foundedinDamascuspreaching Arabunity and socialism. However, the mostimportantnationalist movementwas that in Egypt led byGamal Abdel-Nasserin 1952-1970.Thiswas the height of Arab nationalism.Palestinian Nationalism: under British Mandate (1920-47), theBritish encouragedJewish immigration andpromised a homeland for the Jews in Palestine. In 1947, Israelwas declared andthe Palestinians were promised by the Arabcountries thatthey willhelp them to have their ownstate. However, the 1948 Arab-Israeliwar pushed700,000 Palestinianpeopleout of their land and they still do not have a state of theirown.In 1959-1965, Palestinianelites decided that only a Palestinian nationalmovementwould help liberate their homeland.Thus, several political organizationswere created (Fatah, PLO, etc.), and tools of nationalist culture were also developed(cinema, music, TV, radio, …).