ARB2102_Lecture5.pdf - Lecture 5 Monday February 5 2018...

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Modernist: Lebanese Nationalism: France and Britain defeated the OttomanEmpire in the First World War (1914-18) and the Levant plus Iraq fell underoccupation. The Levant was divided into several states (Lebanon, Syria, MandatePalestine, Jordan).Due to the 1860 civil war in Mount Lebanon, elites in Beirut, supportedby the French, pushedfor a "Greater Lebanon" (usheringthe birth of Lebanese nationalism in 1920).Thenew state needed a national ideology. They based it on a lengthy Lebanese historygoing back 6000 years on Phoenician heritage, and on affiliation with Europe. Thus, Lebanese nationalism is not Arab anddefinitely notSyrian. Notable: The Phalange Party andtoday, The National Current of Michel Aoun. Arab Nationalism: Started in 1911, theal-Arabiya al-Fatat (YoungArabsAssociation).Later in the 1930s, one Syrian Sateh Al-Houssarielaborated onArab identity, as someone whospeaks Arabic and feels being Arab.In 1944, theleague of Arab States wasestablished in Alexandria, Egypt. Then in 1947, theBa'ath socialist Arab Partywas foundedin Damascuspreaching Arabunity and socialism. However, the mostimportant nationalist movementwas that in Egypt led byGamal Abdel-Nasserin 1952-1970.This was the height of Arab nationalism. Palestinian Nationalism: under British Mandate (1920-47), theBritish encouraged Jewish immigration andpromised a homeland for the Jews in Palestine. In 1947, Israel was declared andthe Palestinians were promised by the Arabcountries thatthey will help them to have their ownstate. However, the 1948 Arab-Israeliwar pushed 700,000 Palestinianpeopleout of their land and they still do not have a state of their own.In 1959-1965, Palestinianelites decided that only a Palestinian national movementwould help liberate their homeland.Thus, several political organizations were created (Fatah, PLO, etc.), and tools of nationalist culture were also developed (cinema, music, TV, radio, …).

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