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ARB2102 Arab Culture IIProf. Kamal DibClass summary notes, Feb 7 2017 Modern Arab LiteratureMisconception: Islam and religion forbid art and drawing Proof this is wrong Umayyad Dynasty (665-750), statues, paintings were prominentoIn Syria, many palaces and ruins oCan find calligraphy and these above art types Why this misconception?oRulers made rules stringent oIf you wanted to do art, must design mosquesoMaking statues was considered like worshipping cults“Adab Arabi” and “Adab Arabiyah”Adab: the sense of biblical and Aristotelian ethics, adab, tahzeeb, in the Old Testament: “Addabani Rabbi fa Ahsana Tahzibi” “God helped me with manners”Adab: Manners of behaviors Derivations: Mou’ddab (educated), Muad’Dib (teacher)Ex) Frank Herbert’s novel Dune, the educator was named the “mu’addib” Arabic Literature:“Arabic” as a universal language, a bridge between Europe and Greek civilization, not only in translation and adaptation, but also in genuine contributions in all fields of sciences and the arts: philosophy, algebra, medicine, literature, physics, etc. oWestern history books exclude influence of Arabs oMost translations from Greece were done by the Arabs, then the Europeans took that information from the Arabs oAlgebra is Arabic word for “Gabr”oOnly thing they give credit for is Arabian Nights, which is vulgar and lacks grammar General readers in the West, if they know Arabic literature at all, they only know Arabian NightsHowever, even those Westerners who devote a life of reading Arab works in translation remain ignorant of the vast majority of Arab masterpieces Arabic has been around for thousands of years (first recorded: 856 BC), unlike languages like English and German which are relatively new Islam came in 7thcentury, but 400 years before that Arabs produced masterpieces of literature
See example below Al-Hallaj(b. 858, died 922) – Sufi poet from Baghdad Sufi = wool, dressed in wool and nothing else, pious, devote life to worship god in a loving way (considered blasphemous)“Ya Nassim Rih” Not vulgar, not dated, still sounds fresh Cairo and Beirut main centers of Arabic book publishing. (Hourani, p. 394).By 1960: 3,000 books a year were published in Egypt. There were books of all kinds: textbooks, popular science and literature, special literature for children, and pure literature.Scholarly books by Arab writers were also making a niche. This niche became a well-established tradition of historical research in Beirut, Tunisia and Cairo.________________________________________________________________________1- Arab Literary Pioneers (1890-1920)Hundreds of works appeared at the turn of the century in the late 19thand early 20thcenturies, for example: Georgie Zeidan wrote historical novels. Mustafa Lutfi al-Manfalouti, translated French plays; Ahamd Shawki wrote poetic plays; Hafiz Ibrahim, poet; Mohammad Husayn Haykal, Novel: Zaynab; Abu al-Qasim al-Shabbi (patriotic poetry for Tunisia); Poets: Ma’ruf al-Russafi (Bahrein), Bayram al-Tunisi (Egypt).