Anthro 41A Midterm Study Guide.docx - The Orient Express &...

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The Orient Express & The European Miracle:represents the west world; orient express claims thatalthough “civilization” started in mesopotamia, as it moved west into europe it became bettera.ancient mesopotamia(middle east) cities formed into empires:i.Assyria, babylon, Persiab.The empires ofmesopotamia fell to europe:i.Greeks, romansc.Anything worthwhile after comes from europe:i.Dark ages (fall of rome), renaissance, european colonizationEUROPEAN MIRACLE1.perspective that there was something unique about europeans that set them apart from otherhuman groups2.Blaut calls it a mythMesopotamia/Babylon - Persia - Greece - Rome:not the only ancient civilizations. Nile River Valley,Indus Valley, Yellow River Valley, Meso-America.Domestication of Agriculture:YAMS 10,000 BC Africa; COWS 8,000 BC Africa, Middle East, India;WHEAT 10,000 Mesopotamia; CHICKENS 6,000 BC China (Thailand/southeast asia), India; RICE 10,000BC China; CORN 10,000 BC Meso-America; BANANAS 8,000 BC New GuineaCradles ofCivilization:Mesopotamia (Iran/Iraq), Nile River Valley (Egypt), Indus River Valley(Pakistan/India), Yellow River Valley (China), Meso-America (Mexico/Guatemala)Video on early Indus Valley civilization (a.k.a. Harrapan culture):Major ancient Indus Valley cities includedDholavira, Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa.To date, over 1000ancient Indus Valley cities have been identified, but less than 10% have been excavated. The city ofMehrgarhis thought to be one of the oldest cities in the Indus region dating to about 10,000 years ago.These ancient cities had running water, reservoirs, public baths and a writing system. Many Indus Valleycities had ships and traded goods with Mesopotamian cities. Many of these cities were abandoned whenthe Ghaggar-Hakra River (a.k.a. the Sarasvati River) began to dry up a few thousand years ago.Philosophical/religious developments in the 6th century BC:Contemporaries in the 6th-5th Century BC1.Spread of Zoroastrianism (monotheistic religion; very old)2.Athens - the development of the socratic methods -> plato -> aristotle3.Indiaa.Mahavira: leader of Jainismi.Emphasized religious tolerance and compassion for othersb.Siddhartha Gautama: the “Buddha”, founder of Buddhism4.Chinaa.Confucius: emphasized the duties and responsibilities that rulers had for their subjectsand vice versai.Rulers had moral obligations to those being ruled5.Persia - Xerxes6.Sparta - LeonidasRepublics & Limited Monarchies in 6th - 5th Century BC:-kingdoms , empires, and city-states-persian empire developed major road system, postal system, architectural creativity, uniform monetarysystem, religious tolerance-state religions of persian empire was zoroastrianism
-many city states in greece at this time-most of these city-states in Greece were Kingdoms or Dictatorships with the exception of athens: a kindof “limited’ democracy b/c only wealthy male property owners could vote-12 republics in indus valley:-type of “limited” democracy-there were also “constitutional monarchies”-these kings could not pass laws without court approval - his powers were legally limited

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Term
Spring
Professor
douglas

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