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Unformatted text preview: -errors in DNA replication-tautomeric shifts - transitions and transversions -replication slippage – indel – frameshift mutations-spontaneous lesions-depurination-deamination-oxidatively damaged bases 6. Spontaneous mutations in humans-trinucleotide repeat disorders -fragile X syndrome – CGG repeats-Huntington and Kennedy diseases – CAG repeats 7. The molecular basis of induced mutations-replace a base – base analogs 5-BU and 2-AP-alter a base – EMS and NG-damage a base – UV light and Aflatoxin B 1-intercalating agents – proflavin, acridine orange, ICR-191 8. Ames test-reversion test (His-to His + ) in the presence of a compound 9. Cancer – mutations in cancer cells-oncogenes – example, ras-tumor-suppressor genes – example, p53...
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