Notes - Chapter 15 - 070307

Notes - Chapter 15 - 070307 - -errors in DNA...

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Chapter 15 – Mutation 1. Mutations – heritable changes in the DNA sequence - point mutation – alteration of a single base pair or of a small number of adjacent base pairs - chromosomal mutations (chapter 16) – changes in the number or chromosomes or large scale changes in the structure of the chromosome 2. Point mutations - DNA level - base substitution – transition or transversion - deletion or addition - protein level - synonymous mutation - missense mutation - nonsense mutation - frameshift mutation 3. Spontaneous and induced mutations - spontaneous mutations – occurring in all cells at all times - induced mutations – occur in the presence of mutagens that increase the rate at which mutations occur 4. The molecular basis of spontaneous mutations - Luria and Delbruck fluctuation test 5. Mechanisms of spontaneous mutations
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Unformatted text preview: -errors in DNA replication-tautomeric shifts - transitions and transversions -replication slippage – indel – frameshift mutations-spontaneous lesions-depurination-deamination-oxidatively damaged bases 6. Spontaneous mutations in humans-trinucleotide repeat disorders -fragile X syndrome – CGG repeats-Huntington and Kennedy diseases – CAG repeats 7. The molecular basis of induced mutations-replace a base – base analogs 5-BU and 2-AP-alter a base – EMS and NG-damage a base – UV light and Aflatoxin B 1-intercalating agents – proflavin, acridine orange, ICR-191 8. Ames test-reversion test (His-to His + ) in the presence of a compound 9. Cancer – mutations in cancer cells-oncogenes – example, ras-tumor-suppressor genes – example, p53...
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