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(Add 1,000 or more words beyond question word count of 1,699)Chapter 3: Human DevelopmentGateway Question 3.1: How do heredity and environment affect development?Learning Objective PGAT_COON_2016_3.1.1 – Define developmental psychology; and explain the roles that heredity (“nature”) and environment (“nurture”) play in a person’s development.The study of progressive changes in behavior and abilities fron conception to death. Herdity and environment play a large role in a person’s development. Heredity is the transmission of physical and psychological characteristics from parents to offspring through genes. Environment would be the waythey are raised. Therefore, the traits they get from their parents, and the way they are raised, would determine the outcome development of a person. Learning Objective PGAT_COON_2016_3.1.2 – Explain the basic mechanisms of heredity, includingthe definitions of these terms: genome, ovum, sperm, DNA, chromosomes, genes, dominant gene, recessive gene, polygenic, epigenetics, phenome, and maturation; describe the Human Genome project; list examples of genetic disorders; and discuss the human growth sequence. An ovum is the mother’s egg cell. A genome is the genetic heritage that will determine many of the physical and psychological characteristics of a rapidly developing new life. Sperm is a cell sent from the father to fertilize the mother’s egg cell. DNA is what makes a person, a molecular structure that contains coded genetic information. Chromosomes are threadlike colored bodies the nucleus of each cell that are made of DNA. Genes are specific areas on a strand of DNA that carry hereditary information. Dominant genes are genes whose influence will be expressed each time that the gene is present. Recessive genes are genes whose influence will be expressed each time that the gene is present. Polygenic is personal traits or physical properties that are influenced by many genes working in combination. Epigenetics processes within cells translate the genetic blueprint encoded in the genome, step by step, into an actual organism. Phenome is the actual organism that is encoded via epigenetics. Maturation is the physical growth and development of the body and nervous system. The sum of all external conditions that affect development, including especially the effects of learning. Congenital problems, problems or defects that originate during parental development in the womb. Teratogen is anything capable of altering fetal development in nonheritable ways that cause birth defects. Readiness, a condition that exists when maturation has advanced enough to allow the rapid acquisition of a particular skill. Sensitive period, during development a period of increased sensitivity to environmental influences. It also is a time during which certain events must take place