Gov 1280 Lecture Notes.docx - Gov 1280 Lecture 2 Decline of the Qing Air Force stairway controversy Empty city in Hangzhou as the city received the G20

Gov 1280 Lecture Notes.docx - Gov 1280 Lecture 2 Decline of...

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Gov 1280 Lecture 2- Decline of the Qing Air Force stairway controversy Empty city in Hangzhou as the city received the G20 summit Both the US and China ratified the Paris Climate Deal The Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) The Manchus o A minority ethnic group ruling the majority o They adopted the Han culture. This entailed Confucianism Confucianism o Very clear social order o Four social classes Scholar-officials (people who read the works of Confucianism, take a civil service exam and become a bureaucrat. These people come from all social backgrounds and wield significant political influence. Social mobility was usually higher in the early stages of a dynasty, but eventually, land and power was monopolized under small, wealthy elite class) Landed elites (own the land, they often invest to help their children rise to the first tier. Peasants are also part of this tier). Merchant class- looked down upon. You produce money but you don’t produce food. Money is dirty in Confucianism. Lowest tier (prostitutes, monks, unemployed etc.) This system is very against commerce. Education and knowledge is valued but money is not. Starting in the Ming Dynasty but mostly in the Qing Dynasty, emperors were very closed-minded. They believed that China was the “center of the world.” They didn’t think they needed to trade or interact with outsiders—closed economy. What’s going on outside China? o The world outside China was changing rapidly Industrial Revolution French Revolution American Revolution Japan’s Meiji Restoration o China was relatively stagnant o The First Opium War (1840-1842) As China declines relative to its neighbors, it began to clash with others. The first major confrontation was a war between China and Great Britain. For a long time, China had a large trade surplus with GB (silk and tea) As GB became a superpower, they wanted to explore international markets for their goods—China was an ideal target with its large population
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The East India Company wanted to sell opium to China and soon, opium became a very popular good, especially among the higher classes. People were addicted The emperor realized that the opium trade was weakening the country and around 1840, opium was banned. This started a war. China was defeated and signed the Treaty of Nanking (1842) which opened five ports for trade, paid 21 million silver dollars and ceded Hong Kong. This was the first of a series of so-called Unequal Treaties. Treaty payments required the government to raise taxes, exacerbating grievances among the poor. o Taiping Rebellion (1850-64) Hong Xiuquan was a poor peasant who tried to take the imperial civil servant exam, failed multiple times and then became disillusioned He became the leader of a peasant rebellion, rooted in egalitarianism He also claimed that he was the little brother of Jesus—used Christianity to mobilize peasants At the beginning, the rebellion was successful and they even established a regime—the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom.
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