Lect8-2018.pptx - Diego Loayza diegol...

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Diego Loayza [email protected] genectr.hunter.cuny.edu Office: 913 North Wed: 3-5 or Fri: 10-12 RPA 9-1-1 ATR ATRIP Chk1 P TopB1 RPA ATR ATRIP Chk1 Apoptosis Ajuba Unperturbed cells Ajuba depleted cells Ajuba ? ? ? ? ? P P P
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Chapter 3 Cell Division and Chromosome Heredity BIOL203- Lecture 8 Blue : DNA Green : Microtubules, detected by immunofluorescence (antibody detection) IMPORTANT POINTS: -mitosis produces two identical daughter cells -the cell cycle underlies the mechanisms and checkpoints that constitute mitosis -meiosis consists in a reduction of ploidy and produces haploid gametes -meiosis is the basis for chromosomal inheritance
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Cell Cycle : Phases The Phases of the Cell Cycle: In actively dividing human cells: 24 hr Yeast cells: 1.5 hr Figure 3.1
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Chromosomes during the cell cycle •Each chromosome has two homologs in diploid cells (in mammals: one paternal, one maternal) •After DNA replication, each chromosome has two identical sister chromatids homologs sister chromatids Two identical daughter cells
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Chromosomes during the cell cycle A word on terminology for chromosomes in diploid cells… Our somatic cells are diploid: there are two copies of each chromosome: one paternal, one maternal chromosome Our gametes are haploid: one chromosome for each (maternal or paternal)
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Interphase and 5 stages of mitosis Prophase: chromosome condensation-centrosome duplication-nuclear envelope breakdown Figure 3.2
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Interphase and 5 stages of mitosis Metaphase-Anaphase-Telophase Figure 3.2
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The role of spindle microtubules Figure 3.3 Kinetochores from two sister chromatids must be engaged from opposite poles for a productive interaction: until this happens for ALL chromosomes, anaphase does not occur
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The Metaphase to Anaphase transition Cohesin holds sister chromatids together Separase cleaves cohesin and triggers anaphase Figure 3.4
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Cytokinesis Figure 3.5
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Overview Mitosis produces to diploid cells with unduplicated chromosomes
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Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) Technical note: Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with PNA probes See: http://www.genome.gov/10000206
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