Blood_Vessels_and_Blood_Pressure 215.ppt

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Chapter 10 The Blood Vessels and  Blood Pressure
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Organs that receive excessive blood  flow:  digestive organs, kidneys, and  skin. Blood is maintained at a relatively constant  composition. Accomplished by the digestive organs, kidneys  and skin They can withstand temporary reduction in blood  flow. The blood flow distributed to other organs is less, supplying their metabolic needs and adjusted to their level of activity They do not tolerate significant reductions in blood
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Flow rate of blood flow through a vessel F = delta P R delta P the pressure difference between the beginning and end of a vessel.   F (blood flow) is from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure (pressure  gradient). R (resistance) opposition to blood flow through a vessel.   depends on three factors:  blood viscosity, vessel length, vessel radius. (major determinant) A slight change in radius produces a significant change in blood flow. 
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The vascular tree consists of arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins   The systemic and pulmonary circulations each consist of a closed system of vessels.  Arteries carry blood away from the heart to the tissues.   Arteries branch into arterioles near an organ.   Regulation of the diameter of arterioles supplying an organ adjusts the volume of  blood sent to that organ. Arterioles branch into capillaries, the smallest vessels.   They are the microscopic exchange vessels with all cells, offering blood that  supplies the metabolic needs of the cells. Capillaries merge into venules that send blood into small veins.    Venules and veins return blood to the heart.
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Arteries large radius  little resistance to blood flow.   elastic recoil in the walls  drives the flow of blood during cardiac  relaxation (ventricular diastole) due to a thick middle layer of smooth  muscle with elastic fibers  expand from a large volume of blood  sent into them when the heart pumps  blood (ventricular systole) When the heart relaxes, the stretched  arteries passively recoil.    pushes the excess blood toward the  tissues.   ensures a continuous flow of blood  to the tissues
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Arterial blood pressure Arteries are compliant (distensible).   During ventricular systole, stroke volume enters the arteries  About one-third as much blood leaves the arteries at this time. 
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