100%(3)3 out of 3 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 1 - 2 out of 15 pages.
Objectives for Introduction to biology and the chemistry of life (chapter 2 and 3) : Know the steps of the scientific method-Observations- google someone else’s observation but make sure it is a valid source oEmpirical observation- you are doing the actual observing -Questions- ask them -Hypothesize- nothing more than an answer to a question (guess is an answer) -Test hypothesis- looking up the answer given -Conclusion- you have the information and this will effect what you do with it What is a hypothesis? - an educated guess based on information learned Who is Rutherford, what did he do, why do we care? - Scientist; he did the gold foil experiment (shot alpha particles at foil and expected most of them to bounce back) 98% went through the foil; this shows that mass of an atom is clustered in the center and the rest is air. What are the atoms of life? – carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen Define the following completely, learn the use and meaning of each word and the phenomena it represents:Atom- smallest unit of matter; made up of 3 subatomic particles; atoms never die; each specific type of atom is a chemical element Proton- positive and found in the nucleus; same number as electrons; has mass Electron- negative and found in orbitals; same number as protons; no mass Neutron- neutral and found in the nucleus; number can vary; has mass Ion- if electrons are gained or lost from an atomoCation- positive; has lost electrons oAnion- negative; has gained electrons Isotope- multiple forms of an element that differ in number of neutrons; different mass same element; atomic masses are the averages of the weights of different isotopes in an element Isomer- Two structures with an identical molecular formula but different structures and characteristicsoStructural isomers- contain the same atoms but in different bonding relationshipsoStereoisomers- identical bonding relationships, but the spatial positioning of the atoms differs in the two isomersGeometric isomers- positioning around double bondEnantiomers- mirror image of another moleculeOrbital- s orbitals are spherical and p orbitals are propeller or dumbbell shaped; electrons fill these and the shape will determine the function; each orbital can hold only 2 electrons; atoms with more than 2 have more than one orbital Energy shello1stshell- 1 spherical (s) orbital that holds 2 electrons o2ndshell- 1s orbital (2s) and 3 dumbbell shaped orbitals (2p) that can hold 4 pairs of electrons Atom’s nucleus- where protons and neutrons are held Valence electrons- electrons in the outermost energy shell Octet rule- atoms are stable when their outer shell is full; normally 8 electrons; hydrogen is stable at 2Atomic number- number of protons Atomic mass- average mass of all the isotopes of that element Describe, explain and learn about the following chemical bonds and interactions:Covalent Polar- When two atoms with different electronegativity’s form a covalent bond, the shared electrons