Communication 1: Ultimate Study Guide All pre-midterm information can be found here- 4W53OTI4A/ Intercultural Communication The study of communicative differences across cultures and dimensions of cultural variation. Culture: A learned system of thought and behavior that reflects a group’s shared beliefs, values, and practices. We learn culture through communication with others and, in turn, express our culture through communication. Cultures differ in regards to- Politeness: We’re socialized by our culture and social norms. We learn how to act as a result. o EX: In India, it is polite to reject the first two invitations on a date and say yes to the third. This can cause confusion between cultures. Proxemics (Interpersonal Distance): The space between the two people communicating. o Americans Apply the “ Equilibrium Theory ”- If we move closer, our partner moves farther away and vice versa. Stare at the speaker while listening. o Native Americans and African Americans Stare at the listener while speaking. Chronemics: The timing of a conversation. o Americans (10-15 minutes late)- Our vocabulary is replete with temporal terms such as now, then and later. We are very conscious of time. o British (10-15 minutes late)- Same as Americans. o Scandinavians (right on time) o Latin Americans, Europeans, Japanese - No real regard for time. It is normal to be hours late or not show up at all. o Monochronic Cultures Western cultures. Time is considered a limited resource. One person at a time. Taking turns. o Polychromic Cultures Mexico, India, etc. More than one person is attended to at a time. Multiple tasks are dealt with at once. Talking and silence: o Westerners 1
Aversion to controversial silence. Attribute silence to unwillingness to communicate, lack of interest, rejection, and hostility. Silence is filled with small talk. o Other Cultures Native American and Eastern Cultures only speak once they have observed someone. Comfort is found in silence. Proverbs are written about silence. Dimensions of Cultural Variation- Individualism vs. Collectivism o Individualistic Cultures America, Britain, Canada Emphasize individual goals over group goals. Self-reliance, independence, competition and privacy are valued. Noting an error by a superior is rewarded. Low Context Cultures America + Parts of Asia and Western Cultures Language is much more direct. Less reliant on situational factors in communicating messages. If someone has an issue or is mad, they will openly say it. Example: A boss blames a worker’s mistake on incompetence. o Collectivist Cultures Latin America Emphasize group/tribe/family goals over personal goals.
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