ANT_NE_3550_Colonialism_Making_of_the_Modern_Middle East.pptx

ANT_NE_3550_Colonialism_Making_of_the_Modern_Middle East.pptx

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ANT/NE 3550: ARAB SOCIETY IN TRANSITION COLONIALISM AND THE MAKING OF THE MODERN MIDDLE EAST
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COLONIALISM The control or governing influence of a nation over a dependent country, territory, or people. The system or policy by which a nation maintains or advocates such control or influence. What role did colonialism have on the shaping of the modern Arab World and Middle East?
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COLONIALIS M From 18th century on, expanding European imperialism across globe… …. began to pose major challenges to societies throughout Asia and Africa. Impacted lives of indigenous peoples of all social classes, religions, and ethnic/racial backgrounds.
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INITIAL PERIOD: 1699-1798 OTTOMAN EMPIRE IN SHARP DECLINE Era marked by political/economic decline European territorial gains First European incursions into Ottoman Arab territories Empire tried ‘Europeanizing’/’Westernizing’ but couldn’t keep up
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SECOND PHASE: 1798-1922 Characterized by European domination. Began w/ Napoleon’s invasion of Egypt in 1798. French ousted by British who then occupied it until first quarter of 20 th century. French began occupying parts of N. Africa before mid-19 th c.
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SECOND PHASE: 1798-1922 British began controlling: Egypt Sudan Gulf States Yemen, etc. Spanish controlled parts of N. and S. Morocco Italy controlled Libya French controlled Algeria, Tunisia
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NORTH AFRICANS North Africa ethnically/linguistically diverse. Languages spoken : Arabic Berber (Amazigh and various dialects) Nubian Coptic Composed of: Arabs Berbers other indigenous African groups/tribes Religions: Pre-dominantly Muslim Some Jewish, Christian, and other religious groups
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COLONIZATION OF ARAB N. AFRICA BEGINS Until late 18th c., Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria were provinces of Ottoman Empire . Morocco was independent kingdom. European political and cultural influence in N. Africa minimal before 18 th c.
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THE THREE ‘C’s of COLONIALISM As was true of all European empires at the time, the French in North Africa followed a program based upon the three “Cs” of colonialism: CIVILIZING MISSION COMMERCE CHRISTIANITY Catholic and Protestant missionary societies mostly unsuccessful. Missionaries created clinics, orphanages, and schools that influenced either directly or indirectly the lives of Arab or Berber women.
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ALGERIA UNDER THE FRENCH 1830-French king ordered invasion of Algiers over minor incident. Tensions had been flaring over piracy issues previously Algerians resisted but French waged larger campaigns over next few decades, annexing Algeria. Algeria’s pacification resulted from nearly 50 years of brutal warfare waged against it by French military.
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FRENCH ALGERIA Tens of thousands of European settlers from 1830s onwards went to Algeria Seized Algerian land and resources Often extremely racist towards indigenous peoples of Algeria.
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