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final exam study guide

final exam study guide - BYZANTINE CIVILIZATION 1 The...

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BYZANTINE CIVILIZATION 1. The division of the Roman Empire – the empire was divided into the Eastern Roman Empire (the Byzantine Empire) and the Western Empire; Diocletian divided the entire empire into 4, and Constantine moved the new capital to Constantinople; the new capital was easy to defend and hard to attack, and was the wealthiest and most urban part of the empire; the western Empire was attacked by barbarian tribes and the eastern didn’t aid in the defeat of those tribes; 500 BC is seen as the “official” division of the Empire 2. Constantinople – new capital of the Roman Empire; was easy to defend because of its centrality; was the wealthiest, most civilized, and most urban city in the empire; was the location of the new government in the Empire; was hard to attack (there was water on three sides and a wall along the fourth) 3. Justinian – wanted to restore Rome; r. 527-565; his wife, Theodora, was strong-willed, dominant, and extremely influential; attempted to reconquer the western empire; promoted view of emperor as god-like codified the canons of Roman law; built up Constantinople as wealthy and sophisticated (ex: the Hagia Sophia); his was the last of the Latin-speaking Eastern Empires 4. Byzantine Government – was politically Roman and Christian; emperors influenced the church 5. Byzantine Culture – eastern empire was culturally Greek 6. Caesaropapism – the eastern emperor has a claim to be both the spiritual and political leader; idea that the emperor was ordained by God 7. The Council of Nicea – 325 BC; Constantine called the Council to codify Christian beliefs and the relationship between God the Father and God the son; it defined the trinity; the Arians believed the Son wasn’t as holy as the Father; the Niceans didn’t agree with the Arians and wrote the Nicene creed 8. The Council of Chalcedon – 451 – recognized Constantinople as having the same religious primacy in the East as Rome had possessed in the West; condemned as heresy the belief that Christ had a single, immortal nature and was not both eternal God and mortal man in one and the same person (decision supported by Theodora) 9. The Monophysite Controversy – debate over whether the Son has two or one natures (man and God in one body, or man in one body and God in another); the monophysites believed that Christ had two natures and they were hunted down as heretics 10. The Filioque Clause – the western church added it to the Nicene creed; stated that the Holy Spirit preceded from the Father and the Son
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11. The Iconoclast Controversy – the Eastern church wanted to get rid of all icons in worship ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION 12. Arab culture before Mohammed – tribal community in Arabia – caught between Persians to the east and Byzantines to the west; exposed to Christianity, Judaism, and Persian religions; nomadic tribes in small cities; the Quraysh controlled the Ka’ba and used their religious advantage as an economic advantage and made Mecca a trading “capital”; as Mecca became
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