final exam study guide

final exam study guide - BYZANTINE CIVILIZATION 1. The...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
BYZANTINE CIVILIZATION 1. The division of the Roman Empire – the empire was divided into the Eastern Roman Empire (the Byzantine Empire) and the Western Empire; Diocletian divided the entire empire into 4, and Constantine moved the new capital to Constantinople; the new capital was easy to defend and hard to attack, and was the wealthiest and most urban part of the empire; the western Empire was attacked by barbarian tribes and the eastern didn’t aid in the defeat of those tribes; 500 BC is seen as the “official” division of the Empire 2. Constantinople – new capital of the Roman Empire; was easy to defend because of its centrality; was the wealthiest, most civilized, and most urban city in the empire; was the location of the new government in the Empire; was hard to attack (there was water on three sides and a wall along the fourth) 3. Justinian – wanted to restore Rome; r. 527-565; his wife, Theodora, was strong-willed, dominant, and extremely influential; attempted to reconquer the western empire; promoted view of emperor as god-like codified the canons of Roman law; built up Constantinople as wealthy and sophisticated (ex: the Hagia Sophia); his was the last of the Latin-speaking Eastern Empires 4. Byzantine Government – was politically Roman and Christian; emperors influenced the church 5. Byzantine Culture – eastern empire was culturally Greek 6. Caesaropapism – the eastern emperor has a claim to be both the spiritual and political leader; idea that the emperor was ordained by God 7. The Council of Nicea – 325 BC; Constantine called the Council to codify Christian beliefs and the relationship between God the Father and God the son; it defined the trinity; the Arians believed the Son wasn’t as holy as the Father; the Niceans didn’t agree with the Arians and wrote the Nicene creed 8. The Council of Chalcedon – 451 – recognized Constantinople as having the same religious primacy in the East as Rome had possessed in the West; condemned as heresy the belief that Christ had a single, immortal nature and was not both eternal God and mortal man in one and the same person (decision supported by Theodora) 9. The Monophysite Controversy – debate over whether the Son has two or one natures (man and God in one body, or man in one body and God in another); the monophysites believed that Christ had two natures and they were hunted down as heretics 10. The Filioque Clause – the western church added it to the Nicene creed; stated that the Holy Spirit preceded from the Father and the Son
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
11. The Iconoclast Controversy – the Eastern church wanted to get rid of all icons in worship ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION 12. Arab culture before Mohammed – tribal community in Arabia – caught between Persians to the east and Byzantines to the west; exposed to Christianity, Judaism, and Persian religions; nomadic tribes in small cities; the Quraysh controlled the Ka’ba and used their religious advantage as an economic advantage and made Mecca a trading “capital”; as Mecca became
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 03/20/2008 for the course HIST 151 taught by Professor Hunziker during the Spring '07 term at UNC.

Page1 / 16

final exam study guide - BYZANTINE CIVILIZATION 1. The...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online