HIST 151 notes

HIST 151 notes - History of Western Civilization Greek...

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Led to dignitas: esteem History of Western Civilization August 27, 2007 Greek Civilization I. Why should we care about the Greeks? II. The consolidation of Greek culture III. The Polis (pl. poleis) IV. The Family (Oikos) V. Religion and Culture Minoan Civilization – 2900 BC (Crete) Mycenaean Civilization – 1600 BC (Greek Mainland) o Bureaucracy; kings 1200 BC: both civilizations began their decline o Began the Greek “dark ages” (100-750 BC) 800 BC: “classical Greek society” emerges 900 BC-700 BC: increase in population o Formed poleis o Colonization (Greek colonies spread around the Mediterranean) o Greek alphabet emerges 2 examples of Greek authors: Homer (c. 750 BC) and Hesiod (c. 700 BC) Shared religious culture (i.e. common festivals, etc) Polis o Developed as clans/tribes around 800 BC o Haplite phalanx: farmers with land and money to purchase weapons Held a place in society as defender of the polis
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o Lowest class – semi-citizens (Couldn’t vote) o Non-citizens = women, immigrants, and slaves Sparta evolved into egalitarian society (semi-communist); rooted in war Social System in the Polis o Oikos included everyone in one household (biological family + slaves, etc) o Men engaged in commerce, politics, and military o Women confined to the home (the wealthier the woman, the less she was outside the home) o Men had concubines, prostitutes, etc (behavior was expected and acceptable) o Children born outside of marriage weren’t considered legal heirs o Homosexuality, pedophilia, and pederasty were commonplace o Male heirs were more valuable than female heirs (they were “killed by the gods”) Religion and Culture o Polytheistic o 12 senior deities (Pantheon) o Pantheon similar to other ancient religions and cultures (borrows from Africans, Middle Eastern culture, etc) o Religion was not based on belief but in ritual o Gods would only interfere in grave situations (murder, etc) o Gods would also grant favors o Ceremonies were sacrificial, civic, and NOT spiritual o No priestly caste o Cults came from Middle East Spiritual, personal Cult of Dionysus Predominately female
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ceremonious Cult of Mystery Blurred caste, sex, and race lines August 29, 2007 Classical Greece I. Sparta a. Origins and Messenian War b. Society and Government c. Peloponnesian League II. Athens
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a. Origina b. Solon’s Reforms c. Democracy d. Empire REVIEW OF: Polis City-states Tribes across the countryside Independent leaders – solution: aristocracy Valued community Each developed differently and uniquely SPARTA Island of Peloponnesus Messenian War (675-615 BC) o All Messenians made slaves for Spartans o Sparta organized itself to stop more Messenian (Helot) uprisings (Lycurgus’ idea) o Every year, Spartans declared war against the Helots Society o Citizens All equal and all male When males were born, their were inspected and if deemed strong, would be
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HIST 151 notes - History of Western Civilization Greek...

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