Human Memory & Information Processing Rolling stones Memory and Info Processing • Acquisition of Info • Serial Anticipation Learning • Paired Associate Learning • Mediating Strategies – Meaningfulness, Frequency, Formation of Images, Schema, Pronounceability, Rhyming etc. • Encoding Specificity & Distinctiveness • Transfer positive, zero, negative • Verbal learning and associated variables • Verbal mediators- commonalities • Rehearsal- maintenance, elaborative • Natural language mediators- stimulus • Retrieval • Forgetting • Measuring Retention – Recall, Recognition, Re-Learning (Savings) • Theories of Forgetting – Decay, Interference, Repression • Types of Interference – Proactive, Retroactive, • Ways to Improve Retrieval – Over learning, Organization, Chunking • Models of Memory & Information Processing • The theories and processes applied: An Examination of the Serial Position Curve Acquisition of Info • Materials & methods • The bulk of research on memory has employed Verbal Materials • They range from Nonsense Syllables to words to sentences to paragraphs o take a paragraph rearrange the words, this allowed you to pick which words were meaningful • This range of materials allows for manipulation of the amount of Meaning in a stimuli Herrmann Ebbinghaus • 1 st to published study of memory in 1885 • invented the Nonsense Syllable • 2 major types o CVC- Consonant-vowel-consonant Example: text o CCC-consonant-consonant-consonant • Purpose was to attempt to eliminate the effects of prior knowledge on learning of materials • Procedure- Serial Anticipation Learning • Read a list of nonsense syllable to the beat of metronome to insure each item received the same exposure for study • On all exposures following the initial exposure he attempted to form an association b/w the current stimuli and the next stimuli on the list
Serial Anticipation Learning • Items are shown individually • All items on a list are shown once to constitute a single trial • On each subsequent trial the subject attempts to anticipate what the next item will be from viewing of the current item (i.e.- each item is thus both a Stimulus and Response) Measurement • What is measure is the # of trials until criterion is reach • Also the # of errors per item is measured • The latter measure is taken to insure items are of approximately equal difficulty Results • Items at the beginning and the end of the lists are more easily learned • Words are more easily learned with this method of than either CVC or CCC stimuli • The method also provides for a measure of retention called Savings Paired Associate Learning • main principle is to establish an Association b/w 2 items • 1 item serves as the stimuli for the recall of the other item (i.e.- an item is either a stimulus or a response item never both as in serial anticipation learning) • The major employer of this technique, using words, has been Dr. Allan Paivio , was one of
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- Winter '14
- Memory processes, item, serial position curve, nonsense syllables, Serial Anticipation Learning