HIST-214 Introduction to European HistoryFinal take-home examThis exam is worth 30% of your final grade. Return a hard copy to Isabel’s office (Ferrier 224) between12 pm and 6 pm on December 14th. Feel free to use your lecture notes, the slides on MyCourses and LynnHunt’s The Making of the Westin composing your answers. General information taken from these sourcesdoes not need to be cited (consider it “common knowledge”) but direct quotations or close paraphrasesfrom the Hunt must be properly footnoted in Chicago style. You are not required to do further research forthis exam, though if you do choose to consult other sources be sure to cite properly.Part 1: Vocabulary30% (10% per term)Define and explain each term in half a page. Give special attention to What, Who, When, Where, Why.1. BaroqueThe term baroque is used to describe an artistic style characteristic of the seventeenth century, which was expressed through paintings, sculptures, and architecture. This movement departed from the previous artistic style the Renaissance with its idealism and emphasis on harmonious design, and it accentuates this departure with exaggerated lighting and curves within the art piece. The term baroque wasnot used as a label by the people of the time, it was a term coined by 18th-century art critics to mean shocking, confused and bizarre.1Baroque art reflects intense emotions and a particular sort of Dionysian chaos; a release from restraint, and even a kind of artistic sensationalism, meant to evoke drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur. Moreover, Baroque art, above all reflected the religious tensions of the seventeenth century, as the movement can be seen itself as a symptom of the counter-reformation. Its artistry worked to reaffirm the emotional depths of the Catholic faith, by communicating religious themes through direct and emotional involvement and was used as a new way of convincing the faithful to return to the Catholic Church and glorifying both the church and the monarchy. This is especially potent when compared to the artistry of the protestant world which due to the religious tensions of the age as becoming increasing secularised.1Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures(Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2nded, 2007), 510.1
The Baroque artistic style spread from Rome to other Catholic European states, where the monarchs used the art form to promote the Catholic Church and to consolidate their own power. For example, the Spanish built baroque churches in the American colonies as part of a massive conversion campaign, hoping that the grandeur and majesty of the churches would draw more people to them.2Additionally, the architecture of Louis XIV’s Versailles also shows elements of baroque artistry in its construction, in the form of his ostentatious exhibition of the possibilities of this power.