Term:Amon-Re (Aten and Monotheism)Definition:Amon-Re also known as Amun-Ra wasthe principal god or deity of Thebesduring the time of Egypt's NewKingdom. Because of Egypt'sdominant influence in the worldduring that era, he was worshipped asa universal god. He was recognized as"King of Gods", which inspired amore monotheistic belief in Egyptwhere this single, powerful god wasthe main god to worship. He can betraced as the Egyptian sun god. TheAten also furthered monotheisticreligious influence in Egypt. The Atenwas developed during the reign of theEighteenth Dynasty pharaoh,Akhenaten. King Akhenaten wanted tounite all the Egyptian peoples toworship a single worthy god, Aten,which took form as a solar disc withrays or the sun. This religiousideology was important because it wasan attempt in shifting the Egyptian'spolytheistic belief of worshippingmany Gods into monotheism, theworship of a single god. Thedevelopment of monotheism had hugeeffects on the religions of futurecivilizations like Judaism,Christianity, and Islam.
Term:Ancestor VenerationDefinition:This practice was extremely popularin China; it evolved in their cultureand it's still around today. It camefrom the ideas of respect that wereprovided by Confucius and are everpresent in modern-day Chineseculture. People believed that theirancestors were still conscious andaware of the actions of their offspring,after death. Therefore, people wouldpray and sacrifice to their ancestorsout of respect and in order to ensurethat they had a pleasant afterlife. Aftera funeral, the deceased may receivedaily offerings of their favorite food orobjects that help "feed their souls" andaid their journey to the underworld. Atweddings and celebrations there wereoften elaborate ceremonies andrituals, honoring the ancestors thatcould not attend physically. Gainingwisdom and advice from theirancestors was also a commonpractice. Many would use oraclebones to connect and seek advice fromthe deceased. Ultimately, the practiceof ancestor worship is symbolic of therespectful and venerating tendenciesthat seem inherent of Chinese culture,most likely from Confucian ideas.
Term:Aryans/DravidiansDefinition:The Aryans were responsible forsettling the first civilization in Indiaaround 1500 BCE. They were anomadic, hunting and herding peoplefrom Southern Russia and Iran, andbegan the civilization once they settleddown in India and started farming.The Dravidians were the people nativeto India, and the Aryans looked downupon them, and probably began thecaste system as a means to separatethemselves from the Dravidians
Term:AssyriansDefinition:The Assyrians were a SemiticAkkadian civilization that wascentered on the Upper Tigris river, innorthern Mesopotamia between thelate 25th/early 24th century BCE and605 BCE.