Wolfe 3.ppt - Eisenhower and the Setting of American Space Policy In 1959 the economy was strong and in spite of the huge amount of military spending

Wolfe 3.ppt - Eisenhower and the Setting of American Space...

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Eisenhower and the Setting of American Space PolicyIn 1959, the economy was strong and in spite of the huge amount of military spending, there was still a budget surplus (1 billion dollar surplus for FY 1960). The biggest problem his Presidency faced was the Sputnik; it undermined U.S. credibility in the battleground of technological competition. The Eisenhower administration was the first to formulate space policy.
The State Department viewed Sputnik as a propaganda victory and a way for the Soviets to gain an advantage with the underdeveloped nations.Results of a Gallup Poll the week following the launch showed the American majority feeling that it was a blow to U.S. prestige and surprised that the Russians beat the Americans to the launch.
Lifemagazine portrayed the event as a big defeat for the United States and blamed the cause on a lack of spending.
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Was the Soviet victory the result of the information they took from Germany after the war?NO, the U.S. received the bulk of the information and most of the top scientists. Most agreed that the majority of the damage was more propaganda in nature.
A CIA report put the U.S. two to three years behind the Russians. Still, Eisenhower refused to authorize a crash program.
The Johnson hearings, the Inquiry into Satellite and Missile Program, began on November 25th, 1957 and were pretty much political in nature since Johnson was trying to capture the Democratic nomination for President in 1960. The conclusions of the hearings were that the Soviets were ahead in areas like missile development, submarines, R & D, and space, and were catching up in the area of aircraft.
Johnson’s report also included a list of seventeen recommendations, all of which required higher levels of spending.–Strengthening of SAC (Strategic Air Command)–Acceleration of missile production and anti-missile R&D–A program to build a rocket engine of one million pounds thrust–Manned missile systems
The Orbiter weighs 165,000 pounds (78 tons) empty. The external tank weighs 78,100 poundsempty. The two Solid Rocket Boostersweigh 185,000 pounds empty each. Each SRB’s Gross mass590,000 kg (1,300,000 lb) . The external tank holds 143,000 gallons of liquid oxygen (1,359,000 pounds) and 383,000 gallons of liquid hydrogen (226,000 pounds).Gross Liftoff Weight: 760,000 kgThe whole vehicle -- shuttle, external tank, solid rocket booster casings and all the fuel -- has a total weight of 4.4 million pounds at launch. The orbiter can also carry a 65,000-pound payload All of that fuel is being thrown out the back of the Space Shuttle at a speed of about 6,000 mph The SRBs generate about 3.3 million pounds of thrust each at launch The three main engines (which use the fuel in the external tank) burn for about eight minutes, generating 375,000 pounds of thrust each during the burn.

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