APA1161lab3.pdf - Running Head EXERCISE METABOLISM 1...

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Running Head : EXERCISE METABOLISM 1 Exercise Metabolism Lab 3 Melanie Smyth University of Ottawa
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EXERCISE METABOLISM 2 Introduction Any physical movement can be put into 3 groups; power, speed and endurance. Examples of these forms of movement would be lifting a heavy object, sprinting a 100-m race and running a 10km, respectively. Ability to perform these tasks well is dependant on the quantity of energy your body can supply to complete them. The body has 3 energy systems: The Anaerobic A-Lactic (ATP-CP) Energy System, the Anaerobic Lactic (Glycolytic) Energy System, and the Aerobic Energy System. All of these systems are constantly active but at any time, however one is responsible for the majority of the energy used for each specific movement. ATP stands for Adenosine Triphosphate and is the main supplier of all the body’s energy. This energy release occurs when the molecule, which contains 3 phosphates, loses one phosphate becoming ADP (adenosine diphosphate). The release of this phosphate group also releases energy which can then be used to carry out any bodily function (Yukawa, Watanabe, & Noji, 2015). The Anaerobic A-Lactic (ATP-CP) Energy System works immediately and without oxygen. This system is responsible for providing enough energy for a short period of time, giving the body short bursts of power that lasts less than 10 seconds (Gastin, 2001). The CP stands for creatine phosphate, which is stored in skeletal muscles. To produce quick energy, the CP donates a phosphate to a molecule of ADP, turning it into ATP, which is then used to supply energy to any quick, powerful movement performed by the body. There is a limited amount of CP in the body, which means after only 10-15 seconds, this energy source starts to decline and another provider must step in.
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EXERCISE METABOLISM 3 The Anaerobic Lactic (Glycolytic) Energy System is non-oxidative, and instead of oxygen, uses glucose from carbohydrates, or glycogen from the liver as it’s source for the synthesis of ATP. This system is responsible for providing energy to the body to accomplish all-out bursts of exercise that can last from 15 seconds to 2 minutes. In this situation, ATP is produced through glycolysis, a metabolic pathway that breaks down glucose into pyruvate. This process uses coenzymes and 2 ATP to provide energy to phosphorylate 4 molecules of ADP for a net production of 2 ATP (Brooks, Fahey, & Baldwin, 2005). There is very little energy produced this way, however the process provides small amounts of ATP very quickly, allowing the body to perform short, fast movements. When there is not enough oxygen present, the pyruvate converts to lactic acid through fermentation. This increases the acidity in the body, which causes a burning sensation in muscles (Buchheit & Laursen, 2013). If an individual wishes to perform an athletic test for a longer period of time, then another energy system must kick in to help.
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