Test 2 (Final) Outline

Test 2 (Final) Outline - ARTS 2000 Final Exam Outline...

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ARTS 2000 Final Exam Outline Sculpture o Sculpture is usually defined as a 3D image having height, width, and depth o Sculpture exists in space, as we do o The total experience of a sculpture is the sum of its surfaces and profiles o Freestanding and Relief Sculpture Sculpture meant to be seen from all sides is called in-the-round or freestanding As we move around it, we experience the work of art from a variety of angles and as a total of its profiles and surfaces Sculpture that is not freestanding but projects from a background surface is relief In low-relief sculpture , the projection from the surrounding surface is slight As a result, shadows are minimal In high-relief sculpture , more than half of the natural circumference of the modeled form projects from the surrounding surface, and figures are often substantially cut o Methods of Sculpture Modeling A manipulative and often additive process Pliable material such as clay, wax, or plaster is built up, removed, and pushed into a final form Involves the use of coils To prevent sagging, sculptors usually start all but very small pieces with a rigid inner support called an armature When clay is modeled to form large sculptures, the total pieces can be built in relatively small, separately fired, structurally self sufficient sections No armature is needed Peter Voulkos, in the 1950s, brought ceramic tradition together with fine art and modern art expression and thus extended the horizons for both art and craft Casting Makes it possible to execute a work in an easily handled medium (such as clay) and then to reproduce the results in a more permanent material such as bronze This is often called substitution or replacement process which usually involves a mold In recent years, many sculptors have turned to modern synthetic media such as plastics, which can be painted to looks like a variety of other materials
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Lost wax process – the mold is destroyed to remove the hardened cast, thus permitting only a single cast to be made Carving A subtractive method in which unwanted material is removed from a larger form to create a sculpture Carving is the most challenging of sculptural methods because it is a one-way technique that provides little or no opportunity to correct errors An artist must be able to visualize a form from every angle before beginning to cut Mockette – scale model Constructing and Assembling An additive technique in which artists create new art work by assembling objects and attaching them in some way This technique was greatly influenced by Julio Gonzales who pioneered the use of the welding torch in sculpture The technique lends itself to the use of mixed media and found objects Assemblage – some sculptors assemble found objects in ways that radically change the way we see familiar things, yet the artists maintain enough of the objects’ original
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Test 2 (Final) Outline - ARTS 2000 Final Exam Outline...

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