Exam 4 study guide

Exam 4 study guide - Term Definition Know and understand...

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Term: Know and understand the role of digestive system organs and hormones as they relate to different diseases such as gall stones, diabetes, liver failure, etc. Definition: Gall stones = crystals of uric acids oBuildup of cholesterol from liver, which builds up in gall bladder •Breakdown of nucleic acids •Diabetes = inability to remove sugar from blood due to pancreas not producing insulin or insulin receptors in cell are not functioning so glucose does not get removed from blood •Liver – functions to remove toxins; high level of toxins = failure (cells are going to die and liver is not going to function) •Type one is the inability to produce insulin… more genetic… •Type two (late onset) produce high level of insulin… but no receptors to respond to it •Even tho the gall bladder releases bile… the liver produces it •Issue with pancreas… in terms of digestive system… its provides a significant amount of digestive enzymes in the small intestine •Small intestine is to increase surface area •Large intestine is to absorb water producing feces… problems with diarrhea… problem with large intestine
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Term: Understand adaptations of kidney due to environmental changes (i.e. Kangaroo rat, length of loop of Henle) and the effect of hormones on water and electrolyte balance in the kidney. Definition: •Loop of Henley = responsible for water reabsorption oAnimals in fresh water aquatic environments don’t require kidney to reabsorb large amounts of water so loop is short oAnimals in dry environments (kangaroo rat) need to conserve water so their loops are long to aid in max reabsorption of water oADH – secreted by posterior pituitary in response to low water/low blood volume. Stimulates creation of aquaporin, which are inserted in the walls of collecting tubule to reabsorb water into body oAldosterone is secreted by adrenal cortex. Increases permeability to sodium ions in ascending loop. •Any change you do whether its affecting proximal or distal tubules, •Proximal tubule loop of Henle distal tubule collecting duct •If you decrease sodium reabsorption in distal tubule less sodium being lost in the urine. •The more sodium you have the more water you are going to get rid of •The concentration of the urine 100mm of salt, if you prevent more salt from being absorbed, you lose more water. •Animals that live in the desert to help reduce water loss, bigger loop of Henle. •Urine osmolarity is higher , total volume is less, ADH
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Term: Understand Fick’s law and how it applies to different adaptations or medical conditions. Be able to identify the variables in the equation and apply them to the given situation.
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