Learning A relatively permanent change in behavior that is brought about by experience - Nature-Nurture question, one of the fundamental issues underlying the field of psychology - The acquisition of behaviors, experience - which is essential to the definition of learning - is the "nurture" part of the nature-nurture question It's not always easy to identify whether a change in behavior is due to nature or nurture Some changes in behavior or performance come about through maturation alone and don't involve experience - To understand when learning has occurred, we must differentiate maturational changes from improvements resulting from practice, which indicate that learning actually has occurred. - Habituation Decrease in response to a stimulus that occurs after repeated presentations of the same stimulus E.g. young infants may initially show interest in a novel stimulus, such as a brightly colored toy, but they will soon lose interest if they see the same toy over and over. E.g. adult exhibit habituation: newlyweds soon stop noticing that they are wearing a wedding ring Permits us to ignore things that have stopped providing new information Cognitive Learning Theory Focuses on the though processes that underlie learning Cognitive Map Mental representation of spatial locations and directions Types of Learning Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov Researcher who originally described classical conditioning Neutral stimulus (such as the experimenter's footsteps) comes to elicit a - Learning Thursday, October 12, 2017 1:45 PM
Neutral stimulus (such as the experimenter's footsteps) comes to elicit a response after being paired with a stimulus (such as food) that naturally brings about that response (CS) - In acquisition of behaviors, experience - which is essential to the definition of learning - is the "nurture" part of the nature-nurture question - Neutral Stimulus A stimulus that, before conditioning, does not naturally bring about the response of interest Unconditioned stimulus A stimulus that naturally brings about a particular response without having been learned Unconditioned response Natural, innate response that occurs automatically and needs no training Always brought about by the presence of unconditioned stimuli Conditioned stimulus A once-neutral stimulus that has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus to bring about a response formerly caused only by the unconditioned stimulus Conditioned response A response that, after conditioning, follows a previously neutral stimulus An unconditioned stimulus (UCS) leads to an unconditioned response (UCR) 1. Unconditioned stimulus-unconditioned response pairings are not learned and not trained: They are naturally occurring 2.