Sensation & Perception Chapter 4.pdf - Sensation Perception Thursday 11:17 AM Sensation Activation of the sense organs by a source of physical

Sensation & Perception Chapter 4.pdf - Sensation Perception...

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Sensation Activation of the sense organs by a source of physical energy The process of how our senses receive information Perception Sorting out, interpretation, analysis and integration of stimuli of the sense organs by a source of physical energy The interpretation and integration of stimuli Psychophysics Study of the relationship between the physical aspects of stimuli and our psychological experience of them Played a central role in the development of the field of psychology Noise, as defined by psychophysicists, is background stimulation that interferes with the perception of other stimuli Therefore, noise refers not just to auditory stimuli, as the word suggests, but also to unwanted stimuli that interfere with other senses. Stimulus Any passing source of physical energy that produces a response in a sense organ Vary in both type and intensity Different types of stimuli activate different sense organs Light stimuli Activate the sense of sigh and allow us to see the colors of a tree in autumn Sound stimuli Through the sense of hearing, permit us to hear the sounds of an orchestra Intensity of stimuli Relating to how strong a stimulus needs to be before it can be detected Absolute threshold The smallest intensity of a stimulus that must be present for it to be detected It often takes very small stimulus to produce a response in our senses Touch is so sensitive that we can feel a bee's wing on our cheeks when it is dropped from a distance of 1 centimeter Difference threshold Sensation & Perception Thursday, September 21, 2017 11:17 AM
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Difference threshold The smallest level of added or reduced stimulation required to sense that a change in stimulation has occurred The minimum change in stimulation required to detect the difference between two stimuli, and so it also is called just noticeable difference (Nittrouer & Lowenstein, 2007) The size of the stimulus that constitutes a just noticeable difference depends on the initial intensity of the stimulus The relationship between changes in the original size of a stimulus and the degree to which a change will be noticed forms one of the basic laws of psychophysics, Weber's Law Weber's Law States that a just noticeable difference is a constant proportion of the intensity of an initial stimulus (rather than a constant amount) - Helps explain why a person in a quiet room is more startled by the ringing of a cellphone than is a person in an already noisy room To produce the same amount of reaction in a noisy room, a cellphone ring would have to be set to a much higher level - Sensory Adaptation: Turning Down our Reponses Adaptation An adjustment in sensory capacity after prolonged exposure to unchanging stimuli Occurs as people become accustomed to a stimulus and change their frame of reference The decrease in sensitivity that occurs after repeated exposure to a strong stimulus Light adaptation Adjusting to bright light after exposure to dim light The Eye Vision starts with light, the physical energy that stimulates the eye Light is a from of electromagnetic radiation waves that are measured in wavelengths
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