Midterm Review Session.docx

Midterm Review Session.docx

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How to transform energy Autotroph-inorganic compounds Photoautotroph- light e, co2, make glucose Chemoautotroph- chemical, co2, (bacteria) Heterotroph-different feeding Chemo- Photo- Reproduction-asexual, sexual(union of gametes)-advantage: higher chance of producing, variety in gene Maintain homeostasis- adaptations respond to environment changes(temperature_ Miller & Urey experiments-reproduce early earth conditions-found DNA, RNA, carbon, sugars, and RECIPE OF LIFE: RNA before DNA, lipids naturally occur to perform bio-atmosphere, self-replication Genetic analysis is helping advancement of study in evolution Phylogenetic tree: Node, clade(multiple branches), sister groups(two branches side by side), outgroup(furthest group in tree) Monophyletic-same descendent Paraphyletic- missing descendent Polyphyletic-descendant doesn’t belong Homology-shared ancestry (bat wing/human arm) Homoplasy-similarity due to convergent evolution (same environment, different outcome) (insect wings/bat wings) Physical changes over time: movement of continents =continental drift, volca Life is affected by physical changes to Earth, but life itself also brings about physical changes to Earth(oxygen was toxic to many things when introduced to earth) Cause of Cambrian explosion - higher oxygen levels, new niches, “ new gene, new body” , evolution of predation(selection) Amniotic egg-a safe environment for offspring to develop slowly over time History of Earth-timeline Our species appeared 200,000years ago Diversity of life: genetic variation (gene pool variation), species composition(individuals), function(things you survive on, shape, size)
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“Prokaryotes”-Bacteria and Archaea (comparison nuclear envelop, organelles present, structure of lipids of plasma (phospholipid monolayer/bilayer), cell wall material, information processing, DNA synthesis, transcription and translation) Reproduction-asexual, binary fusion
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