Section Review 11

Section Review 11 - Section Review 11.1 Key Terms...

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Section Review 11.1 Key Terms Communication  Transference  Understanding of meaning  Medium  Sender  Encoding  Channel  Decoding  Receiver  Noise  Feedback  Formal channels  Informal channels  Upward communication  Downward communication  Lateral communication  Oral communication  Written communication  Nonverbal communication  Intonation Case Studies Fed Ex  Toyota Motor Sales USA Summary Communication  is an activity in which we spend 70% of our time. Communicating can  include writing, reading, speaking, listening, as well as types of nonverbal communication  — speaking distance, intonation, gestures, and facial expressions. For communication to  be effective it must include both transference and the understanding of meaning. 
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There are four  functions of communication  within a group or organization: control,  motivation, emotional expression, and information. Communication acts to control member  behavior through both formal and informal channels. Communication fosters motivation by  clarifying to employees what is to be done, how well they are doing, and what can be done  to improve performance. In addition, communication allows for the emotional expression of  feelings and for fulfillment of social needs. Finally, communication provides the information  that individuals and groups need to make decisions by transmitting the data to identify and  evaluate alternative choices. The  model of communication  begins when the sender encodes a message and transmits  that message through the selected channel or medium. The receiver decodes the  message, although noise may interfere with accurate decoding. Finally, the communication  process is complete when feedback is provided — it determines whether understanding  has been achieved. Communication may be described as  upward, downward,  or  lateral . It can flow upward  (from subordinate to supervisor). Examples include climate surveys, "gripe" sessions,  grievance procedures, suggestions, and computerized programs. Downward  communication, such as job instructions, specifications, e-mail, and performance review  are from supervisor to subordinate. Communication between subordinates is known as  lateral communication.  Communication can be categorized as  formal  or  informal . Information communicated by  organizationally sanctioned mechanisms is classified as formal communication; grapevine  and conversations between employees are examples of informal communication.  There are three basic methods of communication —  oral, written,  and  nonverbal . Oral  communication has the least amount of "noise," or interference, which may prevent 
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This note was uploaded on 03/20/2008 for the course MAN 320 taught by Professor Passovoy during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas.

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Section Review 11 - Section Review 11.1 Key Terms...

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