Week1AssgnDoeJ.doc - The Relationship Between Leadership...

This preview shows page 0 - 1 out of 6 pages.

Info icon Subscribe to view the full document.

Unformatted text preview: The Relationship Between Leadership and Management John Doe Walden University The Relationship Between Leadership and Management Is it important to differentiate between leadership and management? Many people think it is, as evidenced by academic debates and internet searches. Virtually all organizations, including large corporations, military branches, government agencies, and academia, as well as MBA programs, organizational development consultants, industrial psychologists, leadership theorists, and human resources professionals are concerned about the difference and believe it is important (Kotterman, 2006). Conceptualizing and defining leadership and management have always been difficult. The two terms are often used interchangeably in the workplace, creating confusion (Bass, 1990; Kotter, 1990). However, Kumle & Kelly (2000) assert that leadership and management are two opposing styles of employee supervision actively used within today’s business. In an effort to provide clarity between these opposing styles, many leadership theorists have contended that leadership is a multidirectional influence relationship and management is a unidirectional authority relationship. Whereas leadership is concerned with the process of developing mutual purposes, management is directed toward coordinating activities in order to get a job done (Rost, 1991). Furthermore, Kotter (1990) asserted that management produces order and consistency, whereas leadership produces change and movement. After synthesizing the results of research conducted by their peers and predecessors, Kirkpatrick & Locke (1991) contended that “it is unequivocally clear that leaders are not like other people.” According to Bennis & Nanus (1985), managers accomplish activities and master routines, whereas leaders influence others and create visions for change. In addition, leaders and followers work together to create real change, whereas managers and subordinates join forces to sell goods and services (Rost, 1991). Looking at the differences from a more narrow perspective, Zaleznik (1977) contended that managers are reactive and prefer to work with people to solve problems but do so with low emotional involvement, whereas leaders are emotionally active, involved, and seek to shape ideas instead of responding to them. To further clarify the difference between leadership and management, the following two scenarios were thoroughly evaluated. In the first scenarios, Roger works for a business software firm and is passionate about his work. He is committed to delivering high-quality software solutions on schedule. He maintains a precise and accurate project schedule with meticulously detailed documentation of product design specifications and processes. Roger’s subordinates never have to guess about expectations. When the rigorous quality assurance process uncovers a problem, Roger can proceed largely unfazed. He knows the capabilities of the developers on his team so well that he knows exactly who to assign to fix the issue. He is quick to offer encouragement and guidance when needed. Roger’s team is productive and happy. Kotter (1990) emphasized that some of the distinguishable characteristics of leaders included establishing direction, aligning people, and motivating and inspiring others. In this scenario, Roger maintains a precise and accurate project schedule with meticulously detailed documentation of product design specifications and processes (establishing direction), knows who to assign to fix issues (aligning people), and offers encouragement and guidance (motivating and inspiring others). Based on Roger’s actions in this scenario, he is definitely serving in the role of leader. In addition, Roger is exhibiting a task behavior approach to leadership. Leaders who exhibit task behavior help their followers achieve established goals (Northouse, 2016). In the second scenario, Linda works at the same company as Roger. She closely monitors industry trends. She is watching the rapid rise of mobile computing and sees competitors introducing new mobile applications with rapid speed. The company has yet to attempt to design software for a mobile platform, but she knows that the company can be competitive in the industry if it makes changes quickly. She is working hard to gain support from members of the executive board and is planning a kickoff meeting for the employees to announce the company’s entry into the new market. She wants to make certain the employees see the change as a great opportunity and know that training will be available. She already has the company’s first mobile project and an ideal timetable in mind. She is anxious to hit the ground running. In addition to establishing direction, aligning people, and motivating and inspiring others, Kotter (1990) also asserted that leaders communicate goals, seek commitment, and build teams and coalitions. In this scenario, Linda creates a timetable for the mobile project (communicates goals), gains support from the executive board (seeks commitment), and plans a kickoff meeting for the employees (builds teams and coalitions). Based on Linda’s actions in this scenario, she is definitely serving in the role of leader. However, Linda’s involvement in the company’s planning, organizing, staffing, and controlling also means that she is involved in management functions (Zaleznik, 1977). Ibrahim & Cordes (1996) contended that there were clear differences between management and leadership; nevertheless, the two constructs overlap. Furthermore Ibrahim and Cordes asserted that an effective manager is someone who must first be a leader. According to Northouse (2016), managers who influence a group to meet its goals are involved in leadership, and leaders who participate in planning, organizing, staffing, and controlling are involved in management. In this scenario, Linda is filling the role of both leader and manager. Linda is also exhibiting a relationship behavior approach to leadership. Leaders who exhibit relationship behavior help their followers achieve established goals (Northouse, 2016). According to Kumle & Kelly (2000), leadership and management are two opposing styles of employee supervision; nevertheless, Kotter (1990) contended that organizations need employees with both of these skills in order to be successful. Furthermore, Kotter concluded that organizations without a healthy balance between leadership and management are subjected to experiencing a lack of efficiency and effectiveness in its daily operations. To be effective, organizations need to nourish both competent management and skilled leadership. References Bass, B. M. (1990). Bass and Stogdill’s handbook of leadership: A survey of theory and research. New York: Free Press. Bennis, W. G., & Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders: The strategies for taking charge. New York: Harper & Row. Ibrahim H., & Cordes, K. (1996) Leader or Manager? Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 67(1), 41-42. Kirkpatrick, S.A. and Locke, E.A. (1991), “Leadership: do traits matter?”, Academy of Management Executive, 5(2), 48-60. Kotter, J. P. (1990). A force for change: How leadership differs from management. New York: Free Press. Kotterman, J., (2006), “Leadership vs. Management: What’s the difference?” Journal for Quality & Participation, 29(2), 13-17. Kumle, J., and Kelly, N. J. (2000). “Leadership vs. Management.” Supervision, 61(4), 8–10. Northouse, P.G. (2016). Leadership: Theory and practice (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Rost, J. C. (1991). Leadership for the twenty-first century. New York: Praeger. Zaleznik, A. (1977). Managers and leaders: Are they different? Harvard Business Review, 55(3), 67–78. ...
View Full Document

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern