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Section Review 19 - Section Review 19.1 Key Terms Forces...

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Section Review 19.1 Key Terms Forces for change  Change  Planned change  Change agents  Manipulation  Cooptation Case Studies Samsung  Wherehouse Entertainment  Tower Records  Toyota Motor Corporation  Harvard University Summary Change  is a constant in the contemporary environment. Forces for change include the  changing nature of the workforce, technology, economic shocks, competition, social trends,  and world politics. While change involves making things different, planned change are both  proactive and purposeful. The goals of planned change are improving the ability of the  organization to adapt to changes in its environment and changing employee behavior.  Change agents are responsible for initiating and managing change within an organization.  These individuals can be managers or non-managers, either insiders or third parties.  Change agents may try to  minimize resistance to change  by education and  communication, participation, building support and commitment, negotiation, manipulation  and cooptation, selecting people who accept change, and coercion. Coercion is the least  effective strategy. Examples include threats of transfer, loss of promotions, negative  performance evaluations, and a poor letter of recommendation.  Section Outline I. Forces for Change 
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A. Nature of the workforce  B. Technology  C. Economic shocks  D. Competition  E. Social trends  F. World politics II. Managing Planned Change  A. Change  B. Planned change  C. Change agents III. Resistance to Change  A. Resistance to change  1. Overt  2. Implicit  3. Immediate  4. Deferred B. Forces resisting change  1. Individual sources  2. Organizational source C. Overcoming resistance to change  1. Education and communication  2. Participation  3. Build support and commitment  4. Negotiation  5. Manipulation and cooptation  6. Select people who accept change  7. Coercion D. The politics of change Section Review 19.2 Key Terms Lewin's Three-Step Model  Unfreezing  Movement 
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Refreezing  Driving forces  Restraining forces  Kotter's 8-Step Plan for Change  Action research  Organizational development  Sensitivity training  Survey feedback  Process consultation  Team building  Intergroup development  Appreciative inquiry Case Studies American Airlines  Roadway Express Summary Lewin's three-step model  of change consists of three steps: unfreezing the status quo,  movement to a new state, and refreezing the new change to make it permanent. It attempts  to increase driving forces, which direct behavior away from the status quo, and decrease  restraining forces, which hinder movement from the existing equilibrium. 
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