a person, not a party to the litigation, who volunteers or is invited by the court to give advice upon
some matter pending before it.
is the power of a
to review decisions and change outcomes of decisions of
lower courts. Most appellate jurisdiction is legislatively created, and may consist of appeals by leave of the appellate
court or by right. Depending on the type of case and the decision below, appellate review primarily consists of: an
entirely new hearing (a Trial de Novo); a hearing where the appellate court gives deference to factual findings of the
lower court; or review of particular legal rulings made by the lower court (an appeal on the record).
Basic Criteria for President:
A natural born citizen of the US, at least 35 years old, a resident of the US for at least
14 years, hasn’t previously held office and been removed, and no one that has served for 6 years or more can run.
Basic Duties of Congress:
Borrow money, regulate commerce, establish post offices, declare war, raise armies,
maintain a navy, make laws, and establish taxes.
Bureaucrats (and what they do):
Implementation, administrative discretion, administration, and regulation.
the body of officials and administrators, esp. of a government or government department.
a council advising a president.
Usually consists of the heads of the major executive departments, plus the
vice president, the director of the CIA ,and whichever other officials the president deems appropriate.
Services performed by members of Congress for constituents to help them cut through the red tape of
the federal bureaucracy such as a speeding up the arrival of a late social security check.
an official reprimand, as by a legislative body of one of its members.
Chief of staff:
the senior officer of the U.S. Army or Air Force, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, responsible to
the secretary of a service branch.
: the 12 geographical jurisdictions and one special court that hear appeals from the federal district
Government workers employed under the merit system: not political employees.
federal government jobs held by civilian employees, excluding political appointees.
Class action suit:
A suit brought on behalf of a group of people who are in a situation similar to that of the
plaintiffs. For example, a suit brought to courts by someone who wants to prevent the dumping of toxic waste.
A vote to end a filibuster or a debate: requires the votes of three-fifths of the membership of
Senate. It is
rarely tried and rarely succeeds. Cloture is so difficult to invoke that the mere threat of a filibuster by a determined
minority party forces the majority in the Senate to comply with the wishes of the minority.