astronomy 4 ch8-9.docx - Chapter 8: Earth as a Planet What...

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Chapter 8: Earth as a PlanetWhat is the main difference between Earth's composition and that of the Sun andother stars?What allows geoscientists to `probe' the interior of the Earth?Make sure you know the major layers of the Earth, as shown in Fig. 8.3. (Note thatthey've incorrectly labeled the outer core as just `core'. In class, we mentionedthe difference between the outer and inner parts of the core - what is it?)Which type of rock are the Earth's ocean floors made of? How about thecontinents?What causes the Earth to have amagnetic field? What is themagnetosphere?What effect does thesolar windhave on the magnetosphere? (This is shown inFig. 8.5)The textbook describesplate tectonics, and we went over this in class. Here aresome specific things to know:What are the differences betweenconvergentanddivergentplate boundaries?At which type of boundary is plate materialcreated? Which typeconsumesplatematerial? What do we call the type of plate boundary that theSan Andreas faultisan example of? (I had this term on a written page that I showed in class, but it'snot listed in the textbook.)What are the two main gases that the Earth'satmosphereis made of?Why doesn't the Earth have manyimpact craterson its surface?What caused the extinction of the dinosaurs, how long ago did this happen, andwhere is the site where the extinction-causing event happened?Chapter 9: Cratered Worlds (= Moon and Mercury)In the "Thinking Ahead" section at the beginning of this chapter, the authorsgivefour similaritiesbetween the Moon and Mercury. Because of thesesimilarities, the two objects are discussed in the same chapter. What are thesefour similarities?What is thesurface gravityon the Moon, compared to that at the Earth'ssurface?Does the Moon have more or less of a stock ofvolatilesthan the Earth does?Whatare`volatiles'?The section on "Exploration of the Moon" describes the missions to the Moon,including the Apollo program of the 1960s and 1970s. Here are some facts toknow about Apollo:How many Apollo missions went to the vicinity of the Moon?How many people walked on the lunar surface?What year was the first Apollo landing?What year was the last Apollo landing?

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Term
Winter
Professor
PaulOlejniczak
Tags
Astronomy, Plate Tectonics, Impact crater

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