Cultural_Anthropology.pdf - Cultural Anthropology en.wikibooks.org On the 28th of April 2012 the contents of the English as well as German Wikibooks and

Cultural_Anthropology.pdf - Cultural Anthropology...

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Cultural Anthropology en.wikibooks.org
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December 28, 2013 On the 28th of April 2012 the contents of the English as well as German Wikibooks and Wikipedia projects were licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported license. A URI to this license is given in the list of figures on page 467. If this document is a derived work from the contents of one of these projects and the content was still licensed by the project under this license at the time of derivation this document has to be licensed under the same, a similar or a compatible license, as stated in section 4b of the license. The list of contributors is included in chapter Contributors on page 465. The licenses GPL, LGPL and GFDL are included in chapter Licenses on page 479, since this book and/or parts of it may or may not be licensed under one or more of these licenses, and thus require inclusion of these licenses. The licenses of the figures are given in the list of figures on page 467. This PDF was generated by the L A T E X typesetting software. The L A T E X source code is included as an attachment ( source.7z.txt ) in this PDF file. To extract the source from the PDF file, you can use the pdfdetach tool including in the poppler suite, or the . pdflabs.com/tools/pdftk-the-pdf-toolkit/ utility. Some PDF viewers may also let you save the attachment to a file. After extracting it from the PDF file you have to rename it to source.7z . To uncompress the resulting archive we recommend the use of . The L A T E X source itself was generated by a program written by Dirk Hünniger, which is freely available under an open source license from .
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Contents 1 Cultural Anthropology/Print version 3 2 Introduction 5 2.1 What is Anthropology? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2 Cultural Anthropology Today . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 2.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2.4 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 3 History of Anthropological Theory 33 3.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 3.2 A brief history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 3.3 Historic Cultural Anthropologists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 3.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 4 Anthropological Methods 55 4.1 Origins of Ethnography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 4.2 Fieldwork Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 4.3 Types of Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 4.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 5 Symbolism and Communication 67 6 Play 69 7 Sport 75 7.1 Sport in Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 8 Cultural Arts 87 8.1 Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 8.2 Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 8.3 Dance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 8.4 Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 8.5 Theatre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 9 References 119 10 Ritual and Religion 121 10.1 Ritual, Religion and Myth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 10.2 Origin of Religion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 10.3 Functions of Religion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 10.4 Concepts of Supernatural Beings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 III
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Contents 10.5 How Beliefs Are Expressed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 10.6 Religious Specialists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 10.7 Ritual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 10.8 World Religions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 11 Cults 251 12 Glossary of Key Terms 253 13 References 255 14 Production, Inequality and Development 259 14.1 Adaptive Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 14.2 Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 14.3 Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 14.4 Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 14.5 Modes of Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 14.6 Foraging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 14.7 Cultivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 14.8 Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 14.9 Modes of Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 14.10 Economizing and Maximization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 14.11 Grameen Bank (Microcredit) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 15 Glossary of Key Terms 293 16 References 295 17 Health and Healing 299 18 Theoretical Approaches in Medical Anthropology 301 18.1 Epidemiological Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 18.2 Interpretivist Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 18.3 Critical Medical Anthropology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 19 Ethnomedicine 305 19.1
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