Chapter 7&8

Chapter 7&8 - Chapter 7- Culture 0. 1. Beliefs, values,...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 7- Culture 0. 1. Beliefs, values, behaviors, and material objects Nonmaterial culture 0. Intangible 1. Symbols, language, norms, values, and beliefs 2. Material culture- Artifacts 3. 4. What is Culture? The Components of Culture Symbols Language- Cultural transmission 5. Norms - Mores/ Folkways/ Taboos 6. Sanctions 2. Negative 0. Formal -Official responses from institutions 1. Informal -From individuals in social groups 3. Positive- Rewarded 7. 0. Values, Ideas and Beliefs Product of action- Humans create culture through action and interaction 1. Conditioning element of further actionInfluence of culture on how we solve basic problems 2. Social institutions 0. Set of ideas about the way a specific social need ought to be addressed 1. Nonmaterial culture 2. Educational system Culture Systems 8. 9. Cultural Diversity: Many Ways of Life in One World 4. 5. High culture- Popular culture Multiculturalism Eurocentrism Afrocentrism Subcultures Counterculture 10. 11. 3. 4. Cultural diffusion- Spread of traits Cultural leveling- Difference between cultures decreases 5. Cultural integration- Close relationship among the culture system 6. Cultural lag- Cultural elements change at different rates 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. culture Global economy- Flow of goods Global communications- Flow of information Global migration- Flow of people Functionalist paradigm- Cultural universals Conflict paradigm- Materialism Symbolic Interactionist paradigm- Interaction Culture as constraint- Cannot live without Culture as freedom- Forces us to choose choose Cultural Change Global Culture Theoretical Analysis of Culture Culture of Human Freedom Chapter 8- Social Structure 19. 0. Social structures 0. Set of relatively stable roles 1. Patterned relationships among statuses 1. Social interaction 2. Process by which people act and react in relation to others Status 9. Physical space affects contacts with the goups 6. Network 10. Web of social ties 0. Status position that you occupy 0. Status set collection of the statuses you hold 1. Status symbols 1. Ascribed status 2. Achieved status 3. Master status importance for social identity 4. Role 2. Role set number of roles attached to a single status 5. Role strain 6. Status inconsistency statuses do not mesh well 7. Role Conflict 8. Role exit disengage from important social roles 0. Ethnomethodology 0. Studies how we make sense of our everyday lives 1. Dramaturgical Analysis 1. Erving Goffman 2. Definition of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance 3. Presentation of self impression management 4. Nonverbal communication 5. Gender affects personal performance 9. Two or more people who identify and interact with one another 10. Primary group 11. Secondary group 12. Group leadership 3. Instrumental leadership emphasizes completion of tasks 4. Expressive leadership emphasizes collective well-being 13. Group conformity 5. Groupthink 2. Reference group 3. Use as a point of reference when making decisions 3. In-group vs. out-group 4. Group size 4. Dyads more intense interaction 5. Triads can form coalitions Formal Organizations 7. Utilitarian organizations 11. Pursuit of material rewards 8. Coercive organizations 12. Involuntary membership 9. Normative organizations 13. Voluntary associations to pursue moral goals 10. Ideal types 11. Six key characteristics of a bureaucracy 14. Specialization 15. Hierarchy of offices 16. Rules and regulations 17. Technical competence 18. Impersonality 19. Formal, written communications 12. Alienation 13. Ritualism 20. Preoccupation with rules and regulations 14. Inertia 21. Tendency of bureaucratic organizations to perpetuate themselves 15. Link with "iron law of oligarchy" 22. Rule by a few Role Bureaucracy The Social Construction of Reality Problems of bureaucracy McDonaldization of society Social Groups Efficiency 16. Calculability 17. Uniformity and predictability 18. Control through automation Social diversity in groups 5. Influences contact 6. In larger groups, contact with other group members 7. Heterogeneous groups more likely to interact with outsiders 8. Similar groups maintain contact within the group ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/21/2008 for the course SOC 202 taught by Professor Xiauqinwuturner during the Spring '08 term at N.C. State.

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