A_K.Sawhney-A_course_in_Electrical_and_E.pdf - A COURSE IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ~\/IEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMENrATIC>N By A K SAWHNEY M.Sc(E11gg

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Unformatted text preview: A COURSE IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ~/IEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMENrATIC>N . . ·. . . . By A. K. SAWHNEY M.Sc. (E11gg.) Professor of Electrical E11gineeri11g Tbapar Engineering College, PATIA LA DHANPAT RAI & SONS EDUCATIONAL AND T}tCHNICAL PUBLISHERS 1682, .Nai Sara~, Delhi-U0006 Phone : 265367 ~-· @All rights rese,frcd by, the author. No parts of this publication may be reproduced', stored in re;rieval .$ystem., ot· transmitted, ibany.form or by a~y ~eans, elect~onic, mecha6ical, photocopying, recording, or o herwise, wi~h~~t the prior wri~ten permissio.1 of the autho~.anJ the publisher. . , ·. ·. By tbe Same ~uthor "· 1. A Course in Electrical Machine Design. 2. A Course in Mechanical Measurements and Instrumentation. First. E.aitjfn, 1 : 1973 S,etond F.d!tfon :.1976 : 1978 Reprint. \Rtprint Reprint .Third B/iition Repriri/ Fburtij Editfon Reprinted· , Reprint ,i'1• ·· . : 1979 : 1980 : 1981 (Modified and Enlarged). : 1982 : '1983· 1984 1'85 I Compile~ b)' : Smt. ~hand~r Sawhney Pl,lblished by : J.C. Kapur', fqr Dhanpat Rai & Sons, Delbi"l10006 (H.o. JuUundur) .. ctmposed by : Karan P1ibtio1·Sr.cv'ice, Subhash Park, Shahdara, Delhi·l1Qo3f. Printed at 1. D.R., Prilltloj Service, Panch.sheeJ Garden, ShahdAta, DeJhH 10032/ I Preface to the· Fourtn 1:arc1on . 'The author i~ pleased to brfogi out the Fourth Editiori of the book a.ncf is _fhankful t~· both· teachers and students for their affecfi-0nate and warm receptio:n to the thlfd ed1t~n of the boo~ whJ9h has been sold out in a period of less than one year. The present edit.ion retai~s essentially the same subjectmatter as the third edition. However, the typographical and (\ther .errors, which had crept in earlier edition, have been corre.cted. The book is intended as a stand~rd text for students studying for their first de8ree i•. Electrical, Electronics and lhstrumentation Engineering at ~ndian Universities (}nd abroad, qd· also for those appearing for A.M.l.E. section Band other profession~l examinations. The book is equally useful for postgraduate students as well as practising engineers involved in ihe iel4A · • of Measurements and Instrumentation. 1 There have been significant changes in curriculum of almost all the upiversities in recent years. Electrical and Electronic In,strumentation is now offered· as separate paper in maay universitks. This has been necessitated on account of latest technological advances which put greater emphasis and reliance on Electronic Instrumentation. . . The contents of the book have been· drastically modified, .re-arrange~ an9 updated t9 · acquaint the reader of modern trends in the field: pf_ Measurements and Instrumeµtation. _ . , The bobk has b.een divided into two parts. -i Part I d~aJs with Mea.surements .and Measuriq Instruments and Part II takes care of the Instrmnentat1on. There 1s an extensive coverage 4f Electrical and Electronic Instrumentation in this edition of the book as compared with the earlier ones. The coverage of Instrumentation portion is about 500 pages · out of a total of nearly 1200 pages. The subject of ·Instrumentation has been developed in logical steps. Separate ahapteu are devoted to topics like Generalized Measurement Systems, Transducers, Signal Conditioning, Data Transmission and Telemetry, Display Devices and Recorders, Measurement of Non· electrical, Quantities and Data Acquisition Systems. Also there are additional chapters on static and dynamic characteristics of Measurement Systems. There is an increased emphasis on digital instrumftlnts and instrumentation which is constant with the present trends. · .· There are .three Appendices in the book. Appendix A deals with Number Systems, Appendix B with Logic gates and Appendix C with conversions from various system~ of units to S.I. The significant additions to the measurements· portion are Transformer ratio bridges (wliich are fast replacing the conventional four arm a.c. bridges), spectrum analyzer, vector impedance meter, vector meter, digital maximum demand indicator and Hall effect multiplier to name a few . .The book ,in fact covers a very wide spectrum of the_Jield of Electrical and Electro1io Measurements ?.nd Instrumentation and .is a conlplete reference in. itself. Another outstanding feature of the book is the i~clusion Qf over 400 1solveQproblems which· ill addition to linking the theory with actual applications gives insight of the industrial practieo. Also about 300 unsolved problems (with answers) have been included to give the students practiee in solving problems. . The author considers the inclusion of problems on Instrumentation (both· ''solved and uB.l ~~ved) as a speciality of this book. This is a pioneering effort which is the outcome of cuthor's, experience of teaching the subject for almost two decades. The book though voluminous, covers two papers, i.e., first on Electrical and Ele~tronie: Measurements and Instruments and second on Electrical and Electronic Instrull_1entat\Qn .arid thus 1 fully justifies its volume. SI units have been uniformly used in .the book throughout. · The autho'r will feel highly obliged to·all the readers for their constructive suggestions aQd healthy criticism of the book which will go a long way in the improvement of the text. - ,· The author is thankful to his wife, Chander J for render,ing assistance in the compilation Qd editing of the work. · · ·· . . ' · The author is grateful to his brothers, Ravish a~d Ajay, for their constant help durinatlae: p~eparatiQn of tqe text. ·· · I To. . . aut~or;s parents who have ~~en~ s~urce of encourascment and guidance. an PATIALA 26-9-1.984 ' ~. A..K. -· -- _.,.,,.,, ••>"' S.A.WQlf ' ' <" DEDICATED TO Anuradha and Puneet 4', • ,I ., Chapt ' ,\ \,' Contents PART I ELECTRICAL. AND ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS ANO MEASURING INSTRUMENTS Chapter 1-Measurements and Measuring Systems ll-8 Measurements. Significance of Measurements Methods of Measurement. Direct Methods. Indirec,t Methods .. Instruments. Mechanical, Electrical and , Electronic Jnstruments. Mec4anical .Instruments. Electrical . Instruments. Electronic Instruments.. Classification of Instruments: Analog and· Digital. Modes ofc Operation. i Functions of Instruments and Measurement Sy.stems. Applications of Measurement Systems. Elements of a Generalized Measurement Syste~. · · · ' Chapter 2 - Characteristics of Instruments and Measurement Systems 9-34 Measurement System J,>erformance. §tatic Calibration. Static Characteristics. Errors in Measurements. True Value. Static Error. Static Correction. Scale Range and Scale Span. Error Ca.libration Curve. Reproducibility and Drift. RepeatabiJity. Noise. Accuracy and Precision. Indications of Precision. Significant Figures. Range of Doubt or Possible Errors and Doubtful Figures_. Static Sensitivity. Instrument Efficiency, ·Index·Scale and Index Number. Linearity. Hysteresis. Threshold, Dead Time. Dead Zone. Resolution or Discrimination. Loading , Effe~ts. Loading Effects due to Shunt connected Instruments. Loading Effects due to s~ries connec· ted Instruments. · Impedance Matching and Maximum Power Transfer. Dynamic Response Measuiing Lag. Standard Signals, Overshoot. Unsol· ved Problems. Chapter 3-Errors in Measurements and their Statistical Analysis 35-'4 Limiting Errors (Guara'otee Errors). Relative (Fractional) Limiting ErrorL Combination of Quantities with Limiting Errors · Known Errors.Types of Errors. Gross Errors. Systematib Brrc,rs. In'strumental Errors. Environ· mental Errors. Observational Errors. Random (Residual) Errors.. Central ,\/.'. Value. Statistical , Treatment of Data. Histogram. Arithmetic Mean. L~~r Measure of Dispersion from the Mean. Range., Deviation. Average Devi· · ation. Standard Deviation (S.D.), Variance. Normal or Gaussian Curve of Errors. Precision fodex. Probable Error. Average Deviation for the Normal Curve. Standard Deviatian for the Normal Curve. Probable Error of a Finite Number of Readings. Standard Deviation of Mean. Standard Deviation of Standard Deviation. Specifying ODDS. · Specifying Measurement Data. Variance and Standard Deviations of Combination of Components. Probable Error of Combination of Components. lJ'ncer· tainty Analysis and Treatment of Single Sample Data : Propagation of Uncertainties. Unsolved Probems. Chapter 4-Units, Systems, Dimensions and Standards 65-q 101 Introduction. Unit. Absolute Units. Fundamental and Derkre.4 · Plcltts•. Dime11sions. D!mepsi9ns ·of Me~hanical. 9. u~. ntities: ~istoric~l :Q.. a.pk.f. &r?,µp~ . of System of Units. COS System .of Umts: Electromagnetic U~it( (~~¥P· .··~ ./ (it) units). Electrostatic Units (e.s. u~its). Practical Units. Dimensional.Equations. Dimensions in Electrostatic System. Dimensions in Electromagnetic System Relationship between Electrostatic and Electromagnetic Systems of Units. M.K.S. System (Giorgi System). Rationalised M.K.S.A. System. SI Units. Base Units of SI. Supplementary Units. Multiplying Prefixes of 'Units Determination of Absolute Units. Absolute Measurement of Current: Rayleigh's Cu,rrent Balance. Absolute Measurement of Resistance: Loi'en7t Method. Standards and their Classification : International· Standards; Primary Stflndards. Secondary Standards. Working Standards., Standards for Mass and Length. Atomic Frequency and Time Standards. Temperature Standards. Luminons Intensity Standards. Electrical Standards. Emf.· Standards : Primary Standard of Emf. Secondary Standn,rd of Bmf LaQo- · ratory Standards·of Emf. Higher Voltage Zener Sources and Temperature Effects... Primary Standards of Resistance.. Current Standards. Inf. ilctanoo Standards. Capacitance Standards. . Unsolved Problems. 1 Chapter 5 -Circuit Components (Rolstors, Inductors and Capacitors) and their Residues Residues. Resistors. Resistance Materials. Spools (Formers) for ·coils Resistance Wires. Ageing. Annealing. Resistance Standards. Resistance Standards for. D.C. Low Resistance Standards. Stan·dard Resistances for A.C. Circuits Frequency Errors of Resistors. Methods of Reducing Residual .Inductance. Resistance Boxes. Thin Film Resistors. Composition Resistors Shielded Resistors. · INDUCTORS Standards of Inductance. Formers for Inductance Coils. Coils of Induc· tance Coils. Standards of Mutual lnouctance. Standards of Self-Inductance. Vax:iable foduct1nces. Inductors for High Frequency Work. Inductors for Low Frequency Work. Frequency Errors in Inductors. CAPACITORS Loss Angle and Power. Factor. Distributed Capacitance. Capacitance Standards. Vacuum and Gas-filled Capacitors. Solid Dielectric Capacitors Variable Capacitors. Decade Capacitance Boxes. Frequency Errors in Capacitors. Unsolved Problems. Chapter 6-Analog (pointer) Iostrnments Analog Instruments. Classification of Analog Instruments. Principles of Operation. ELECTROMECHANICAL INDICATING INSTRUMENTS . ' Operating forces. Constructional Details. Types of Supports. Balancing. Torque/Weight Ratio. Control Systems. Damping System&, Eddy Current Damping Torque of M~tal Former. Damping Torque of a Metal Disc. Permanent Magnets. Pointers and Scales. Recording Instruments. Integrat· ing Instruments. Unsolved Problems. Chapter 7-GalvHometers Introduction. D' Arsonval Galvanometer. Construciion of d'Arsonval _Galvapometer. }'Qrque Equation. Dyna~i~ Behaviour pf Galvanometers. Eqlia!ton of Motton. Underdamp.ed ¥ot1on. of a Galvanometer. Undamped Motion of, a Galvanometer. CrittcaUy Damped Motion of a Galvanometer, Operational Constants. Relative.Damping. , LogarithmicDoorement; Over- ( 140~191 (iU) shoot. Overdamped Motion of Galvanpmeter. Non-dimensional Cur/ves of a Galvanometer Motion. Damping. Sensitivity. Galvanometer· Ty~~· Galvanometer Shunts. Ayrton Universal Shunt. Ballistic Gdlv.an.om ~.~r:· Calibralion of a ·'Ballistic Galvanometer. Flux Meter. Use of Shunt . ith .Flu!mete1'. Vibration Galvanometers. ·Duddell's Oscillograph. Unso ved Problems. · 1 l£tiaptet.::s-Amdog Ammeters, Vo»tm~-~~r~ Hd Obmmete~s 192-~0 ·Introduction. Power Loss. Types of Instruments. Errors in Ammeters and Voltmeters. Pamanent Magnet Moving Coil Instruments (PMMC) Construction. Torque Equation.\ Range. Ammeter Shunts. Arrangement -for Temperature Effect CorrectiQn. · Multi-range Ammeters Vottqieter Multipliers. Effect of Temperatu~ Changes. Multirange d c. Voltmeters. ·Sensitivity. Voltmeter Sensitivity a~d Loading Effects. Errors. Advant~ges and Disadvantages. · Ohmmeters. Introduction. Series-tyP,e 0.hmmetel'/ Shunt type Ohmmete~s. Multimeter or Volt-Ohm-Milli-ammeter (V.O.M.). Ratiometer. Ratiomet~r Ohmmeters. Megger. Ducter Ohmmeter. . Moving Iron Instruments General Torque Equation .Cla~ifica· . tion of Moving Iron Instruments. Attraction Typ~ ~epulsion Type. Reason for Use on both A.C. and D.C. Shape bf Scale .Long Scale Instruments. Shunt for Moving Iron Instruments. Multipliers for Moving Iron I,nstruments. Comparison between Attraction and Repulsion · Types of Instruments. Errors. Advantages and Disadvantages. Electro· dynamometer Electrodynamic) Type Instruments. Operating Principle Construction. Torque Equation. Electrodynamometer Ammeters. Electrodyriamometer Voltmeters Errors. Use on D.C. and A.C. Shape Qf Scale. Advantages and Disadvantages. Ranges . Use of Electrodynamoqieter Type ·Instruments at High Frequencies. Ferrodynamic Instruments. Construction Operation. Advantages and DisadvaQ.tages Electrothermic Instrbments. Classification Hot Wire Instruments. Thermoelectric Instruments. Thermal Emf. Principle of Operation. Heater Element. Thermo-element Shape of Scale Connections. Advantages and Disadvantages. Range's Electro~ static Instruments. Force and Torque Equations. Qu:idrant Electrometer 'Kelvin Multicellular Voltmeter. Attraction Type Portable Instruments. Attracted Disc Type·Kelvin Ahsolute Electrometer. Everett Edgecumbe Voltmeter. Use on both AC. and D.C· · Shape of Scale. General Con· siderations Extension of Range of Electrostatic Voltmeters. Errors Advan. tages and Disadvantages. Inducti!ln Type Instruments. Principle of Operation. Types of Instruments. Ferraris Type. ·Shaded Pole Type .. Shape of Scale. Advantages and Disadvantages. R~ctifier Instruments. Rectifier Elements. Rectifier Characteristics. Rectifier Voltmeters. Full Wave Rectifier Circuit~ Factors InfluenCing the Performance. Half Wave Rectifier Circuits. Multi· meters. Simpson's Multimeter. Rectifier Ammeters. Advantages .of Rectifier Instruments. Unsolved Problems. i Chapter 9- Instrumeo~ ·Transformers Introduction. · Use of Instrument Transformers. Ratios. Burden. 289-332 CURRENT TRANSFORMERS Theory. Brron. Cbaract~risti~ of Curr~nt Tr41ntformers Causes of Errors.. ~, Reduction of. Errors.· · Construction:: of · Currtnt 1'.ransforrners. Clamp .on Aµimeters. E~ect of Seo()ndary Open Ci.-euit., r.inanel)t Magnetization and t . 'i ··~ (iv) its Demagnetization. Current Transformers for High Frequencies. Potential Transformers. Difference between C. T. and P. T. Theory. Errors. R,educ· tion of Errors. Construction of Potential Transformers. High Voltage Potential Transformers. Capacitive Potential Transformers Characteristics of Potential Transformers. Testing of Instrument Transformers. Current Transformer Testing. Potential Transformer.Testing. Unsolved Problems. ..1. 333-37~ Chapter IO-Measurement of Power and Wattmeters Power in D.C. Circuits. Po~1er in: A.C. circuits. Electrodynamometer Wattmeters. Construc'ion. Theory. Shape of Scale. Wa~tmeter Errors. Torsii:m ·head Electrodyn amometer Watt meters Ferrodynamic ·Wattmeters. Cambridge Reflecting Wattmeter Low Power Factor Wattmeters (Electro· dynamameter type). Thermocouple Wattmeter (Thermal Watt Converter) Electrostatic Wattmeters. Induction Type · Wattmeters. Lipman· Type Induction Wattmeter. Hall Effect Multiplier. Measurement of Power Using Instrument Tn;msfot·mers. Po\vcr ih Poly-Phase Systems. Measurement of Power in Three Phase Circuits. Three Phase Wattmeters. Measurerr .mt of Reactive Power.· Summation ,Metering. Unsolved Problems. 3~1-403 Chapter H-Measureme'nt of Energy and Industrial Metering General. Motor Meters Braking. Friction. Energy Meters for A.C. Circuits. Single Phase Induction Type Watt-hour Meters. Construction. Theory and Operation. Lag Adjustment Devices. Light Load or Friction Compensation. Creep. Over-Load Compensation. Voltage Compensation. Temperature Compensation. ·Errors. Adjustments. Polyphase Eoergy Meters. Two Element Energy Meter. Industrial Metering and Tariffs Maximum Demand Indicators. Measurement of VAh and VArh. VArh Metering. Measurement of VAh. \ ENERGY METER TESTING Types of T~sts. Phantom Loading. Testing 'Meth ·,ds. Meter Testing Circuits Unsolved Problems. tllQter 12 - Measurement of Phase and ;frequency 404--t23 POWER FAC'fOR METERS Introduction. Single Phase Electrodynamometer Po·.ver Factor Meter, Three Phase Electtodynamometer Power Factor Meter-Construction. ·Moving Iron Power Factor. Meters. Rotating Field Power Factor Meter. Alternating Field Power Factor Meter (Nalder Lipman Type). Advantages and Disadvantages of Moving Iron P.F. Meters. FREQU~NCY METERS Types of Frequency Meters. · Mechanical Resonance Type Frequency Meter (Vibrating Reed Type). Electrical Reasonance Type Frequency Meters. Weston Frequency ·Meter. Ratiometer Type Frequency Meter. Saturable Core Frequency Meter. SYNCHROSCOJ: ,e;:, . . : .,;'' Synchron;izing. Electro-dynamometer (Weston)Type Synchroscope. Moving lron Synchroscopes. Pase Sequence Indicators. · \'\ (v) Chapter 13-MelSorrement or Resistance Classification of Resistances. MEASUREMENT OF MEDIUM RESISTANCES I I~ ' Methods of Measurement of M.edium Resistances. Ammeter Voltmeter Method. Substitution Method. Wheatstone· Bridge. Sensitivity of · Wheatstone Bridge. Galvanometer Current. Precisfon Measurement. of Medium Resistances with Wheatston~ Bridge. Carey-Foster Slide-wire Bridge. Kelvin Varley Slide. Limitations of Wheatstone Bridge. MEASUREMENT OF LOW RESISTANCES Introduction. Construction of Low Resistances. Methods for Measurement of Low Resistance. Ammeter Vol1meter Method ..~Kelvin Double Btidge. Kelvin Bridge Ohmmeter. · Unbalanced Kelvin Bridge. MEASUREMENT OF HIGH RESISTANCES Introduction. Difficulties· in Measurement of fligh Resistances~ Use of Guard.Circuit. Methods Measurement of High Resistance. Direct Deftec· tion M,ethod. Loss of Charge Method. · Megohm Bridge Method. Measurement of Insulation Resistance with Power On. Unsolved Problems. for ~b1»1er 14-:-Potentlometers . D.C. POTENfIOMETERS Introduction. Basic Potentiometer Circuit. Laborhtory Type (Cro~pton'$) Potebt~ometer. Multiple·Range Potentiometer. Cor.structional Details of Potentiometers. Precision Type Potentiometers. Vernier Potentiometer. Standard Cell Dial. True Zero. Brooks Deffectional Potentiometer. VoltRatio Box.. Application of D.C. Potentiometers: Protection of Standard Cell and Galvanometer. Self-Balancing Potentiometers. A.C. POTENTIOMETERS Introduction. Standardidng of A C. Pote11tiometers · and Use t>f Transfer Instruments. Types of A C. Potentiometers. Drysdale Polar Po(.Cniiometu. Gall-Tinsley (co-ordinate type) A.C. Potentiometer. Quadrature Adjustments, of Currents. Campbell· Larsen Potentiometer. Applications of A.C. Potentiometers Unsolved Problems, Chapter 15-Power System Measurements . . MEASUREMENT OF EARTH RESJSTANC~ 481-495 Necessity" of Earth. Biectrode. Necessity of Measurement of Resistante of Earth Electrode. Factors Affecting Earth. Resistance. Methods of ~asuring. Earth Resistance. , LOCALIZATION OF CABLE FAULTS Types of Faults Methods Used for Localizing Faults Methods· Used., for Localizing Ground and sho1t Circuit Faults. Murray L0op Test. Varfoy J.oop Test. Location of Open Circuit Faults in Cables. SYMMETRIC{\L COMPONENTS ANO- THErR MBASUREMENT Introduction to Symmctncal Comp'onen •.>. Ca;vul~tion of Symmetrical _Conipon~nts M:easureinent of symmetrical tompon~nts; Measuremeat of r·.-.., "' •,, (vi) Positive Sequence Component of Current. Measurement of Negative Sequ· ie!iJlce Component of Current. · Measuremen...
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