Unformatted text preview: Chapter 9- Society and Social Institutions
What is Society?
o People who interact in a defined territory and share culture o Self-sufficiency distinguishes society from other social groups Government as a Social Institution Gerhard Lenski: Society and Technology
o Sociocultural evolution o Hunting and gathering societies o Horticultural and pastoral societies o Agrarian societies o Industrial societies o Postindustrial societies o Distributes power, sets agenda, and makes decisions o Formal organization that directs political life o Authority is power that is seen as legitimate o Monarchy o Democracy o Authoritarianism o Totalitarianism Family as a Social Institution Karl Marx: Society and Conflict o Society and production Capitalists vs. proletarians Social institutions (Economy most important) False consciousness o Conflict and history o Capitalism and class conflict Class consciousness o Capitalism and alienation o Found in all societies o Unites individuals into cooperative groups that oversee the bearing and raising of children o Marriage patterns Endogamy Exogamy Monogamy Polygamy Religion as a Social Institution Max Weber: The Rationalization of Society o Beliefs and practices based upon a conception of the sacred o Types of religious organizations Church Sect Cult o World religions- Monotheism vs. polytheism o Ideal types o Two world views Tradition Rationality- Rationalization of society Weber's great thesis Protestant Ethic o Rational social organization (characteristics of bureaucracies) Education as a Social Institution Guides transmission of knowledge- Basic facts, job skills,
and cultural norms and values o Importance of formal education varies o Access to education varies o Quality of education varies o Nature of Social Institutions Emile Durkheim: Society and Function o Social fact rooted in society rather than individuals (norms and values) o Anomie little moral guidance o Division of labor Mechanical solidarity Organic solidarity Social Institutions o Recognized solution to social problem Economy Government Family Religion Education Economy as a Social Institution o Organizes production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services o Agricultural and industrial revolutions New forms of energy and technology o Capitalism o Socialism o Communism o Welfare capitalism o State capitalism o Unplanned, develop gradually How a society solves its problems must fit with existing social values and norms Behavior becomes a habit Transformation of behavior into routine Not all routine behavior are institutions Explain institutions as reasonable/logical and natural o Inherently conservative, change slowly Legitimized by logic and appeals to nature Attempt to change may be seen as an attack on nature Economy o Interdependent Change in one institution tends to change others Technology o Differences between societies Statuses, roles, values, and norms associated with an institution vary Societies respond to needs differently Forms of government Family Social Experiences: The Key to Our Humanity
o Socialization Acquire culture and learn nature of social institutions Lifelong process o Nature vs. nurture o Research on social isolation "Anna" and "Isabelle" o Develop social self Chapter 10 Socialization Agents of Socialization 0. Selfawareness and selfimage 1. Emerges from social experience 2. Dual nature 1. "I" is the self as subject 2. "Me" is the self as object o Development of self 1. Play stage Imitation 2. Game stage Know several roles 3. Generalized other Considering other points of view o Family o School Hidden curriculum o Mass media o Peers Reinforce social structures o Workplace Anticipatory socialization Resocialization: Total Institutions Understanding Socialization o FreudElements of personality Eros (life instinct) and thanatos (death instinct) Id basic drives Ego conscious efforts to balance drives Superego culture within the individual o PiagetCognitive development Sensorimotor stage Sensory contact Preoperational stage Language and other symbols Concrete operational stage Causal connections Formal operational stage Think abstractly and critically o Total institutions Mental hospitals, prisons o Resocialization o Twostage process 1. Break down inmate's existing identity 2. Build new self o Degradation ceremonies Depersonalization How Socialization Works o LookingGlass Self Charles Horton Cooley Based on our perceptions of how others see us Imagine how we look to others Imagine their reaction to our appearance Respond to this with selffeeling Importance of primary groups o Social Self (George Herbert Mead) ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/21/2008 for the course SOC 202 taught by Professor Xiauqinwuturner during the Spring '08 term at N.C. State.
- Spring '08