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Chapter 13&14 - Chapter 13 Inequality and Achievement...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 13- Inequality and Achievement: Social Class Dimensions of Social Inequality o U.S. is highly stratified o Income o Wealth o Power o Occupational prestige o Education o Structural mobility- Changes in social structures rather than individuals Thoughts to ponder.... o What about people who are homeless, do they want to live on the streets? o What role does racism and gender inequality play? Social Stratification and Birth o Ancestry- Entry point into social system o Gender- Women tend to have less income and wealth o Race and ethnicity- Linked to social position o Religion- Upward mobility may mean converting to a higher-ranking religion Social Classes in the United States o Upper class- Less than 1% of U.S. population o Middle class- 40-45% of U.S. population o Working class- 25% of the U.S. population o Lower class- 20% of the U.S. population The Difference Class Makes o Health o Education o Working Life o Crime and Justice o Values- Attitudes toward education and financial security o Politics- Class differences between economic and social issues o Family and gender- Conventional norms and respect for authority Poverty in the United States o Relative poverty in relation to others o Absolute poverty life-threatening poverty o Who are the poor? Age Race and ethnicity Gender and family patternsFeminization of poverty Urban and rural poverty Cultural Explanations for Social Stratification o People in different social class have different values o Their poverty reflects them individually o Culture of poverty Structural Explanations for Social Stratification o Limited access to opportunities o Culture of poverty is a consequence of poverty rather than a cause o Example-school tracking o Table 13.2-Differences between tracks Other Aspects of Stratification Chapter 14- Inequality and o Pygmalion effect- Teacher's expectations affected student's performance o Fallacy of hard work- Hard work is not a guarantee of success Ascription: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender 0. Gender vs. sex 1. Gender and global perspective 2. Patriarchy 3. Matriarchy 4. Sexism 0. Gender roles 1. Parents 2. Peer groups 3. Schools 4. Mass media Gender Stratification 8. Source is a member of the majority 9. Target is a member of the minority 0. Pluralism- Minorities are distinct, but have equality 1. Assimilation- Minorities adopt a patterns of the majority 2. Segregation- Separation of people 3. Genocide- Annihilation of people Majority and Minority: Patterns of Interaction Gender and Socialization 0. Greater equality for women 1. Blurring of gender roles 2. Immigration has generated striking cultural diversity Inequality: Looking Ahead o Women in the workforce o Women's earnings o Violence against women Family violence Sexual harassment Gender and Social Stratification o Structural-functional analysis Traditional sex roles promote efficient functioning of the family Gender roles integrate society o Social-conflict analysis Dominance Subordination Sexism o Advocacy of social equality for the sexes in opposition to patriarchy and sexism o Types of feminism Liberal Socialist Radical o Race o Ethnicity o Minority Theoretical Analysis of Gender Feminism The Social Meaning of Race and Ethnicity Share a distinctive identity Occupy a subordinate status 0. Rigid and irrational generalization about an entire category of people 1. Involves misjudgments 2. Stereotypes 3. Action that involves treating categories of people unequally 4. Matter of action 5. Merton's typology of prejudice and discrimination 6. Institutional prejudice and discrimination 7. Applied to acts of discrimination at the institutional level o What about welfare reform? Prejudice Discrimination Discrimination and "Isms" ...
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