HRT 251 Notes - 1/7/08 - Introductions Group definitions o...

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1/7/08 - Introductions Group definitions o Farm – produces products foe our use – natural products – for eventual consumption o Organic – requires certification – low impact on land – efficient – higher costs Legal definitions o Farm - any place from which $1,000 or more of agricultural products (crops and livestock) were sold or normally would have been sold during the year under consideration. This definition has been in place since August 1975—by joint agreement among USDA, the Office of Management and Budget, and the Bureau of the Census Land requirements were removed for the current definition o Organic – A production system that is managed in accordance with the Act and regulations in this part to respond to site-specific conditions by integrating cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity National standards set to standardize what organic is Must sell at least $1000 to be certified – if less than that is sold you can label yourself as organic 1/9/08 – Why Organic? (guest lecturer John Biernbaum) Organic USDA standard defined in 1990 by the National Organic Program took effect in 2001 Standards maintained by the National Organic Standards Board – so they can and do change Annual inspection by 3 rd party certifier approved by the USDA Emphasis on maintenance and building of soils, natural resources and biodiversity Organic = Knowledge and Ecology based Systems approach to agriculture o In contrast to en external based inputs system Countering lobbies constantly trying to change/maintain standards Why Organic? o Food safety o Result of critical thinking o Spirituality o Ecological/environmental protection o Better nutritionally o Sustainability for future generations o More diversity in crops o Locally grown o Political reasons – choosing who to support o Animal treatment o Seasonal eating o Support of quality not large economy
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o Community – support of local economy o Increasing greatly in economic value o No synthetic hormones or antibiotics in animal products Must treat animals but cannot be labeled as organic anymore o Job creation Historical perspectives of organic farming o See timeline handout o IFOAM principles 2005 www.ifoam.org (see handout) o Difference in organic and conventional farming There are degrees of each type There likely is a continuum of farming methods such that it would be correct to say either they are very far apart o Hunter gather to herding to horticulture to agrarian to industrial To ??? – proposed – ecological o “farming” developed in at least seven different places
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1/14/08 – Farm as an Ecological System Haber-Bosch process – nitrogen in atmosphere is split and combined with other elements to make precursor for explosives or fertilizers Refuge crop – safe place for helpful bugs Trap crop – attracts bugs in concentrated area to make it easier for farmer to kill them –
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This note was uploaded on 03/21/2008 for the course HRT 251 taught by Professor Mogtader during the Spring '08 term at Michigan State University.

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HRT 251 Notes - 1/7/08 - Introductions Group definitions o...

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