tourism develop sustainable.pdf - CHAPTER 3 TOURISM...

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~ 55 ~ CHAPTER 3 TOURISM DEVELOPMENT PLANNING 3.1 INTRODUCTION Tourism has been highly acclaimed as the gateway to the economic liberation of many communities, particularly in the developing world (Park & Stokowski, 2009: 905; Iorio & Wall, 2012:1440; Liu, 2006:878; Iorio & Corsale, 2010:152). This stance has been further supported by the ever-increasing flow and projections in tourist arrivals and receipts (WTTC, 2013:3; Oh, 2005:39), and the decline in traditional manufacturing industries and the subsequent re-structuring of many traditional economies (Rogerson, 2004:249). As a result, many governments have resorted to tourism for the revival of their local economies (Lepp, 2007:876; Shrestha, Stein, & Clark, 2007:978). In some instances these have yielded the desired results as tourism-led development has created jobs, increased incomes for families, and boosted the GDP of the country among others (Matarrita- Cascante, 2010:1141, Andereck, Valentine, Knopf & Vogt, 2005:1061). As an invisible export, tourism is considered to fulfill the same economic goal as any tangible goods, thereby creating wealth and enhancing the living standards of the host population (Ioannides, 2003:38). However, parallel research has equally expressed reservations regarding the real benefits of tourism-led growth. Many governments have fallen prey to random and poorly planned tourism development without giving due consideration to the adverse environmental, socio-cultural and economic impacts on communities. This is worst in cases where the local communities were not adequately involved in the decision-making process (Briedenhann & Wickens, 2004: 71). More so, tourism often competes for scarce resources, such as water, land, energy, finance, and waste management, with other critical needs such as health, education, and conservation. It follows from this that the merits should be measured against the opportunity costs (Tao & Wall, 2009:90). Iorio and Wall (2012:1440) assert that the impacts of tourism are likely to vary depending on the form it takes and the situation in which it is developed. Tourism planning is therefore not only desirable,
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~ 56 ~ but an imperative if the gains from the tourism sector have to be sustained over the indefinite future. The purpose of this chapter is to analyse literature on tourism development planning and to explore the South African tourism situation in order to establish the theoretical framework and operational environment within which the Soshanguve tourism strategy will take root. The layout of this chapter is therefore as follows: Figure 3.1: Layout for Chapter 3 The South African tourism situation The tourism planning process Tourism development impacts Tourism development planning Community tourism Rationale for planning tourism Tourism planning Socio-cultural impacts of tourism development Economic impacts of tourism development Environmental impacts of tourism development Key national policy documents Provincial (Gauteng tourism situation) Local (City of Tshwane tourism situation) The relevance of community tourism Theories related to community tourism The nature of community tourism
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  • Fall '16
  • dr dayah
  • United Nations World Tourism Organisation

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