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Unformatted text preview: United States - Geert Hofstede NATIONAL CULTURE COUNTRIES lMll there be one big world culture in 50 years from now? 0 Yes 0 No _l*- Country China 80 20 66 40 l 18 Hong Kong 68 25 57 29 96 Taiwan 58 17 45 69 87 Japan 54 46 95 92 80 South Korea 60 18 39 85 75 Brazil 69 38 49 76 65 India 77 48 56 40 61 Thailand 64 20 34 64 56 Singapore 74 20 48 8 48 Netherlands 3 8 80 14 53 44 Sweden 3 1 71 5 29 33 Australia 36 90 61 51 31 Germany 35 67 66 65 31 New Zealand 22 79 58 49 30 United States 40 91 62 46 29 Ethiopia 64 27 41 52 25 Kenya 64 27 41 52 25 Tanzania 64 27 4] 52 25 United Kingdom 35 89 66 35 25 Zambia 64 27 41 52 25 Norway 31 69 8 50 20 Philippines 94 32 64 44 19 Ghana 77 20 46 54 16 Nigeria 77 20 46 54., 16 Power distance This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not equal - it expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities amongst us. Power distance is defined as the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organisations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally. It has to do with the fact that e society's inequality is endorsed by the followers as much as by the leaders. The United States score low on this dimension (40) which underscores the American premise of 'Iiberty and justice for all.‘ This is also evidenced by the focus on equal rights In all aspects of American society and government Vlhthin American organizations. hierarchy is established for convenience. superiors are always accessible and managers rely on individual empioyees and teams for their expertise. Both managers and employees expect to be consulted and information is shared frequently. At the same time. communication is informal. direct and participative. Individualism The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to do with whether people's self-image is defined in terms of 'I' or 'We'. In Individualist societies people are supposed to look alter themselves and their direct family only. in Collectivist societies people belong to 'in groups' that take care of them in exchange for loyalty. The United States. with a score of 91 on this dimension. is a highly individualistic culture. This translates into a loosely-knit society in which the —stat5.hhnl[2/8/2012 7:02:24 PM] “)1 lUV MAS UAl L'I'U Hotel-do Wurl- 2011 - video Impression W W on Twitter Interview: Geert Holstede in Semen on WWII. W Tue Jan 31 14:43 from Essentials See what Prof. Hoistede answers to "Culture without Hofstede is like..." W W Thu Jan 05 16:36 from Em [El 0955 United States - Geert Hcfstede expectation is that people look after themselves and their immediate families. There is also a high degree of geographical mobility in the United States and most Americans are accustomed to doing business with. or interacting with strangers. Consequently, Americans are not shy about approaching their prospective counterparts in order to obtain or seek information. In the business world, employees are expected to be self-reliant and display initiative. Also. within the exchange-based world of work, hiring and promotion decisions are based on merit or evidence of what one has done or can do. Masculinity] Femininity A high score (masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will be driven by competition. achievement and success. with success being defined by the 'winner' or ”best-in-the-field.‘ This value system starts in school and continues throughout one's life - both in work and leisure pursuits. A low score (feminine) on the dimension means that thedominant values in society are caring for others and quality of life. A feminine society is one where quality of life is the sign of sums and standing out from the crowd is not admirable. The fundamental issue here is what motivates people, wanting to be the best (masculine) orliking what you do (feminine). The United States score 62 on this dimension and is considered a masculine" society. Behavior in school. work, and play are based on the shared values that people should "strive to be the best they can be' and that ‘the winner takes all'. As a result. Americans will tend to display and talk freely about their ‘sucoesses' and achievements in life. here again. another basis for hiring and promotion decisions in the workplace. Typically. Americans 'live to work' so that they can earn monetary rewards and attain higher slants based on haw good one can be. Conflicts are resolved at the individual level and the goal is to win. Uncertainty avoidance The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way that a society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we try to control the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with itanxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in different ways. The extent to which the members of a culture feel threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created beliefs and Institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the UAI score. The US scores 46 on this dimension and therefore. American society is what one would describe as “uncertainty accepting.‘ Consequently. there isa larger degree of acceptance for new ideas. innovative products and a willingness to try something new or different. whether it pertains to technology. business practices. or foodstuffs. Americans tend to be more tolerant of ideas or opinions from anyone and allow the freedom of expression. Attire same time. Americans do not require a lot of rules and are less emotionally expressive than higher-scoring cultures. Long-term orientation The long term orientation dimension is closely related to the teachings of Confucius and can be interpreted as dealing with society's search for virtue. the extent to which a society shows a pragmatic flours-oriented perspective rather than a conventional historical short-term point of view. The United States scores 29 on this dimension and is a short-tenn oriented culture. As a result. it is a culture focused on traditions and fulfilling social obligations. Given this perspective, American businesses measure their performance on a short-term basis. with profit and loss statements being issued on a quarterly basis. This also drives individuals to striveforquick results within the work place. There is also a need to have the ‘absolule truth' in all matters. lance http:/lgeert-hofstede.comlunitsd-states.ht:rnl[2/8/2012 7:02:24 PM] ...
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