psy 2012 chaop5.docx - Learning More-or-less a permanent...

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Learning More-or-less a permanent change in behavior. Behavior Actual (behavior), thoughts, beliefs, attitudes, etc. Ivan Pavlov Russian physiologist interested in salivation and digestion who discovered classical conditioning when experimenting with dogs and meat powder. Classical Conditioning Learning through association US Unconditioned Stimulus - stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response naturally. UR Unconditioned Response CS Conditioned Stimulus CR Conditioned Response Extinction If the CS continues to be presented without the arrival of the US, the learning association between the two will become extinct.
Spontaneous Recovery An association that is quickly relearned after being extinguished. Stimulus Generalization If an organism was taught to respond to a neutral stimulus (such as a bell), and then responds to a slightly different type of bell sound. Stimulus Discrimination If an organism does not respond to a slight variation of a neutral stimulus. Operant Conditioning (aka Operant learning, instrumental conditioning, instrumental learning) Learning takes place because of consequences (favorable or unfavorable) Edward L. Thorndike Observed cats in a 'puzzle box' learning how to escape for food reward. The more the cats were placed in the box, the quicker they managed to escape.

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