Week1_Intro - Psych&129C&& Lecture&1&...

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Unformatted text preview: Psych&129C&& Lecture&1& Denise&A&Chavira,&PhD& Race/Ethnic&Considera<ons&in& Mental&Health& Denise&A.&Chavira,&PhD& Goals&of&this&class& •  To#increase#student’s#self111awareness#of#how# their#own#personal#cultural#values#and# assump7ons#may#impact#how#they#understand# self,#others,#and#the#environment.##& •  To#familiarize#students#with#cultural#related# issues#that#affect#psychopathology,#detec7on#of# psychopathology,#and#interven7ons#for# individuals#with#mental#illness.#& •  To#increase#student’s#ability#to#cri7cally# evaluate#research#related#to#cultural#issues#in# mental#health.#& Introduc<ons&& •  •  •  •  Who&are&you?&& Where&did&you&grow&up?& What&is&your&ethnic/racial&background?& Do&you&have&any&cultural&tradi<ons&you&would& like&to&share&or&do&you&admire&any&cultural& tradi<ons&from&other&groups?&& KEY&CONSTRUCTS& •  RACE:&&a&social&construct&based&on&basic& physical&characteris<cs&such&as&skin&color,&the& texture&of&one’s&hair,&or&the&shape&of&one’s& eyes,&nose,&and&so&forth.&& –  No&consistent&evidence&for&categorizing&people& based&on&these&characteris<cs.&& –  Consequences&are&real& used as an objective measure of classifying social groups, but it is questionable because many races are mixed and ambiguous & & & ETHNICITY& •  Ethnicity&(oYen&provides&more&info&than&race):& Describe&common&heritages,&behaviors,&values,& percep<ons,&and&folklore&of&a&par<cular&people.& Music,&language,&food&preferences,&rituals,& celebra<ons,&and&health&beliefs&and&prac<ces&are& typically&explained&with&this&concept.&& –  Asian&American,&can&refer&to&individuals&from&some&30& or&more&countries,&or&Arab&Americans&could&include& 15&countries;&individuals&and&families&in&each&of&those& countries&have&dis<nct&heritages.& –  Hispanics&are&categorized&as&a&par<cular&ethnicity,&not& a&racial&group.&& NIH&RACIAL&GROUPS& CULTURE& •  Culture&(most&inclusive):&This&concept&involves& shared&meanings&among&a&group&of&people& that&are&learned&ways&of&thinking&and&the& acquisi<on&of&worldviews.&Cultural&<es&can& extend&beyond&race&and&ethnicity,&and&can& include&religion,&sexual&orienta<on,&group& membership&etc.& –  being&Southern&Bap<st,&Catholic,&&Muslim,&gay,& Hispanic,&Californian&or&a&PhD&student& Minority& •  Minority&is&typically&used&in&reference&to& groups&whose&access&to&power&is&limited&by& the&dominant&culture&& •  Not&necessarily&a&numerical&minority& •  Those&who&are&excluded,&marginalized,&and& misrepresented&& Labels&are&problema<c&& •  Helpful&to&learn&the&terms&that&people&prefer& •  How&do&you&refer&to&yourself&when&somebody& asks&about&your&race/ethnicity& –  E.g.&Black&vs.&African&American&or&more&specific&& –  Chicano,&La<no,&Hispanic,&Spanish&or&more&specific&& –  Asian,&Pacific&Islander,&Filipino,&or&more&specific&& Exercise& •  WHAT&IS&IT&ABOUT&CULTURE&THAT&MATTERS& TO&MENTAL&HEALTH?& - The way people with mental health issues are viewed by their own cultural or societal stigmas. How some groups view certain symptoms as illnesses may not be seen the same way in other cultural groups. - Interaction between different cultures can affect how mental health is dealt with. - Socioeconomic classes can determine how the perception of mental health is dealt with - Perception changes across cultures --> i.e. therapy in Western medicine is perceived as foreign and alien, possibly shameful, in others like Asian cultures. ***How patients manifest symptoms - How patients cope - Racism - Discrimination - Poverty - Acculturative stress - How patients cope - range of family and community support - Willingness to seek treatment - How patients communicate - Mistrust and stigma - Bias and stereotyping - Misinterpretation of behavior and belief - Lack of symptom recognition - Misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment - How people define illness - Patient-therapist relationship ????& •  ETHNICITY&IS&A&DISTAL&CONSTRUCT& –  This&is&referenced&in&both&Sue,&1999&and& Betancourt&and&Lopez&1993&   What&does&this&mean?& **More important to find proximal, explanatory, and underlying factors to deal with problem --> What does it mean for an African-American to be more proactive in protecting themselves from adhering to ethnic stigmas? Beyond&Categories& •  •  •  •  •  •  Accultura<on&& Ethnic&Iden<ty& Perceived&Discrimina<on&& Racializa<on& Language&proficiency&& Worldviews& –  Collec<vism&vs.&individualism& •  Values& •  Intergenera<onal&conflict&& Impact&of&Discrimina<on& •  Most&Black&youth&perceive&at&least&1&discriminatory&incident,&moreso& among&males& –  linked&to&depressive&symptoms&and&self&esteem&and&life&sa<sfac<on&(Seaton&et& al.,&2008)& •  Discrimina<on&associated&with&greater&odds&of&serious&psychological& distress&regardless&of&aeribu<on&(racial/nonfracial)& –  &High&racial&group&iden<fica<on&buffered&the&nega<ve&effect&of&moderate& levels&discrimina<on&&&(Chae&et&al.,&2011)&& •  •  Asian&Americans&who&reported&unfair&treatment&had&higher&odds&of&alcohol&abuse/ dependence.&&& –  Low&EI&and&racial&discrimina<on&associated&with&alcohol&use&(Chae&et&al,.,&2008)& Female&gender,&family&conflict,&perceived&discrimina<on&and&life<me&depressive&and&anxiety& were&correlated&with&suicidal&idea<on&and&aeempts&(Cheng&et&al,.,&2010)& How&important&is&culture&in& understanding&human&behavior?& 0f25th& 0&percen<le& Means&universal& & Universalism& 26f50th& 51f75th& 76thf100th& 100&percen<le& Means&everything& is&culture&specific& Rela<vism& Balance&is&important&in&research&and& clinical&work& •  Universalism&and&rela<vism& •  Internal&and&external&validity&& –  Efficacy&and&effec<veness&research&& •  Scien<fic&skep<cism&& –  Look&for&proximal&factors&& how well the diagnoses or treatment effectively influences patients and families, and how this effect can apply or generalize to the public ...
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