chapter2

chapter2 - 2-2-1Organic Organic ChemistryChemistryWilliam...

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Unformatted text preview: 2-2-1Organic Organic ChemistryChemistryWilliam H. BrownWilliam H. BrownChristopher S. FooteChristopher S. FooteBrent L. IversonBrent L. Iverson2-2-2AlkanesAlkanesandandCycloalkanesCycloalkanesChapter 2Chapter 22-2-3StructureStructureHydrocarbon:Hydrocarbon:a compound composed only of carbon and hydrogenSaturated hydrocarbon:Saturated hydrocarbon:a hydrocarbon containing only single bondsAlkane:Alkane:a saturated hydrocarbon whose carbons are arranged in an open chainAliphatic hydrocarbon:Aliphatic hydrocarbon:another name for an alkane2-2-4HydrocarbonsHydrocarbonsH-C C-HH-C-C-HHHHHHCCHHHHydrocarbonsAlkanes(Chapter 2)Alkenes(Chapters 5-6)Alkynes(Chapter 7)Arenes(Chapter 21-22)Only carbon-carbon single bondsOne or more carbon-carbondouble bondsOne or morecarbon-carbontriple bondsOne or morebenzenelikeringsClassExampleCarbon-carbonbondingNameEthaneEtheneAcetyleneBenzeneSaturatedUnsaturated2-2-5StructureStructureShapetetrahedral about carbonall bond angles are approximately 109.52-2-6Drawing AlkanesDrawing AlkanesLine-angle formulasan abbreviated way to draw structural formulaseach vertex and line ending represents a carbonCH3CH2CH2CH3CH3CH2CH3CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3PentaneButanePropanePentanePropaneStructuralformulaLine-angle formulaBall-and-stickmodel2-2-7Constitutional IsomerismConstitutional IsomerismConstitutional isomers:Constitutional isomers:compounds with the same molecular formula but a different connectivity of their atomsexample: C4H10CH3CH2CH2CH3Butane(bp -0.5C)CH3CH3CHCH32-Methylpropane(bp -11.6C)2-2-8Constitutional IsomerismConstitutional Isomerismdo these formulas represent constitutional isomers?find the longest carbon chainnumber each chain from the end nearest the first branch compare chain lengths as well the identity and location of branchesCH3CHCH2CHCH3CH3CH3CH3CH2CHCHCH3CH3CH3and(each is C7H16)CH3CH2CHCHCH3CH3CH3CH3CHCH2CHCH3CH3CH3445431and511223352543212-2-9Constitutional IsomerismConstitutional IsomerismWorld populationWorld populationis aboutis about6,000,000,0006,000,000,0004,111,846,7634,3477531Constitutional IsomersMolecularFormulaCH4C5H1 2C1 0H2 2C1 5H3 2C3 0H6 236,797,588C2 5H5 22-2-1010Nomenclature - IUPACNomenclature - IUPACSuffix -aneanespecifies an alkaneanePrefix tells the number of carbon atomsundec-dodec-tetradec-pentadec-hexadec-heptadec-nonadec-eicos-tridec-11121314151617octadec-181920Prefixmeth-eth-prop-but-pent-hex-oct-non-dec-1234567hept-8910CarbonsCarbonsPrefix2-2-1111Nomenclature - IUPACNomenclature - IUPACParent name:Parent name:the longest carbon chainSubstituent:Substituent:a group bonded to the parent chain alkyl groupalkyl group: a substituent derived by removal of a hydrogen from an alkane; given the symbol R-AlkaneAlkyl groupCH4NameNameMethaneCH3-Methyl groupCH3CH3EthaneCH3CH2-Ethyl group2-2-1212Nomenclature - IUPACNomenclature - IUPAC1.The name of a saturated hydrocarbon with an unbranched chain consists of a prefix and...
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chapter2 - 2-2-1Organic Organic ChemistryChemistryWilliam...

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