Biology notes - Biology notes Internal Systems Respiratory system Functions 1.Gas exchange to provide oxygen gas from ambient(outside air to the blood

Biology notes - Biology notes Internal Systems Respiratory...

This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 10 pages.

Biology notes- Internal Systems Respiratory system: Functions: 1.Gas exchange - to provide oxygen gas from ambient (outside) air to the blood. - to pick up waste gas, carbon dioxide from the body and transport it out of the body. 2. Protecting body from microorganisms: -Cells of trachea (windpipe) secrete mucus, can trap foreign objects were not stopped in nasal cavity -microscopic cilia then work to “sweep” out trapped substances back to the pharynx. - Once in pharynx these substances can be swallowed or expelled. 3. Provides sound by vocal cords in larynx (voice box): -vibrate as air is forced past them, producing sound. -Gas exchange: process by which oxygen diffuses into the body cells and carbon dioxide diffuses out of the cells. -External respiration: (lungs and environment) oxygen diffuses from the lungs to bloodstream. Carbon dioxide diffuses from bloodstream to lungs. -Internal respiration: (blood and cells) oxygen diffuses from bloodstream to cells. Carbon dioxide diffuses from cells to bloodstream. -ventilation: (breathing) process of moving oxygen-rich air into the lungs and carbon dioxide rich air out of the lungs. Aerobic cellular respiration: series of chemical reactions that occur in the cell that provided energy and consume oxygen. Glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water +ATP( energy) C 6 H 12 O 6 +6O 2 → 6CO 2 +6H 2 O + ATP About 64% of our energy is released as thermal energy created during cellular respiration. Rest is stored as ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Molecules can diffuse through cell membranes only if dissolved in water. Cellular respiration : Reactants waste products Glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water + energy Occurs in two stages: 1. Anaerobic stage- no oxygen gas.Occurs in cytoplasm of cells. C-C-C + chemical energy released from few broken bonds. C-C-C Glucose → 2 pyruvic acid + 2 ATP → only 5% of available energy in glucose. 2. Aerobic stage: -no oxygen gas. Occurs in mitochondria of all cells. -C-C-C +6O 2 → C-O2 C-O2 C-O2 +6H 2 O +chemical energy from broken bonds. C-C-C C-O2 C-O2 C-O2 Pyruvic acid + oxygen → carbon dioxide +water 34 ATP → 95% of available energy in glucose. Cellular respiration v.s. Fermentation: Lactic acid fermentation → occur in cytoplasm. Two kinds. Bacteria/yeast create alcohol +CO 2 Lung volume: Importance- the greater the lung volume, the more oxygen gas can be brought into the blood so, cells can do cellular respiration, longer. I.e. keep producing energy. Total lung capacity (TLC)- average about 4-6 L of air. Only a small amount of this capacity is used during normal respiration. Factoring affecting TLC- age: lungs lose their elasticity with age, body, size, smoking, gender (females about 20-25% ower TLC than males), general fitness (athletic), disorders (asthma). Normal adult takes about 18 breaths every minute.
Image of page 1
The circulatory system : Important in large multicellular organisms to: 1. Transport substances: between external environment (outside body) and internal environment (cells). Cells and others cells.
Image of page 2
Image of page 3

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 10 pages?

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes