chapter6

chapter6 - 6-6-1Organic Organic ChemistryChemistryWilliam...

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Unformatted text preview: 6-6-1Organic Organic ChemistryChemistryWilliam H. BrownWilliam H. BrownChristopher S. FooteChristopher S. FooteBrent L. IversonBrent L. Iverson6-6-2Reactions of AlkenesChapter 6Chapter 66-6-3Characteristic ReactionsCharacteristic ReactionsCCCCCCBr2(HX)HClH2O(X2)CCBr2(X2)H2O(X)CCHOHCCBrBr (X)CCHOBr (X)CCHCl (X)Descriptive Name(s )Re ac t io n+++Bromination(halogenation)Hydrochlorination(hydrohalogenation)Hydration+Bromo(halo)hydrinformation6-6-4Characteristic ReactionsCharacteristic ReactionsCCCCCCBH3OsO4H2CCHg(OAc)2H2OCCBH2HCCHOOHCCHHCCHOHgOAc+++HydroborationDiol formation(oxidation)Hydrogenation(reduction)+Oxymercuration6-6-5Reaction MechanismsReaction MechanismsA reaction mechanism describes how a reaction occurswhich bonds are broken and which new ones are formedthe order and relative rates of the various bond-breaking and bond-forming stepsif in solution, the role of the solventif there is a catalyst, the role of a catalystthe position of all atoms and energy of the entire system during the reaction6-6-6Gibbs Free EnergyGibbs Free EnergyGibbs free energy change, Gibbs free energy change, GG::a thermodynamic G = DH &#2; TDS6-6-7Gibbs Free EnergyGibbs Free Energya change in Gibbs free energy is directly related to chemical equilibriumsummary of the relationships between G, H, S, and the position of chemical equilibriumG = -RT ln KeqAt higher temperatureswhen T < 0, 0; < 0; < < 0, < 0< 06-6-8Energy DiagramsEnergy DiagramsEnthalpy change, Enthalpy change, : : the difference in total 6-6-9Energy DiagramsEnergy DiagramsEnergy diagram:Energy diagram:a graph showing the changes in energy that occur during a chemical reactionReaction coordinate:Reaction coordinate:a measure in the change in positions of atoms during a reactionReactioncoordinate6-6-1010Activation EnergyActivation EnergyTransition state:Transition state:an unstable species of maximum energy formed during the course of a reactiona maximum on an energy diagramActivation Energy, Activation Energy, GG::the difference in Gibbs 6-6-1111Energy DiagramEnergy Diagrama one-step reaction with no intermediate6-6-1212Energy DiagramEnergy DiagramA two-step reaction with one intermediate6-6-1313Developing a Reaction MechanismDeveloping a Reaction MechanismHow it is donedesign experiments to reveal details of a particular chemical reactionpropose a set or sets of steps that might account for the overall transformationa mechanism becomes established when it is shown to be...
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This note was uploaded on 03/21/2008 for the course CHEM 261 taught by Professor Austell during the Spring '08 term at UNC.

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chapter6 - 6-6-1Organic Organic ChemistryChemistryWilliam...

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