chapter10

chapter10 - Organic Chemistry William H. Brown Christopher...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–12. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
10- 10- 1 Organic Organic Chemistry Chemistry William H. Brown William H. Brown Christopher S. Foote Christopher S. Foote Brent L. Iverson Brent L. Iverson
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
10- 10- 2 Alcohols Alcohols and Thiols and Thiols Chapter 10 Chapter 10
Background image of page 2
10- 10- 3 Structure - Alcohols Structure - Alcohols The functional group of an alcohol is an -OH group bonded to an sp 3 hybridized carbon bond angles about the hydroxyl oxygen atom are approximately 109.5° Oxygen is sp 3 hybridized two sp 3 hybrid orbitals form sigma bonds to carbon and hydrogen the remaining two sp 3 hybrid orbitals each contain an unshared pair of electrons 108.9 O C H H H H
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
10- 10- 4 Nomenclature-Alcohols Nomenclature-Alcohols IUPAC names the parent chain is the longest chain that contains the OH group number the parent chain to give the OH group the lowest possible number change the suffix -e -e to -ol -ol Common names name the alkyl group bonded to oxygen followed by the word alcohol alcohol
Background image of page 4
10- 10- 5 Nomenclature-Alcohols Nomenclature-Alcohols Examples 1-Propanol (Propyl alcohol) 2-Propanol (Isopropyl alcohol) 1-Butanol (Butyl alcohol) OH OH OH 2-Butanol ( sec- Butyl alcohol) 2-M ethyl-1-propanol (Isobutyl alcohol) 2-M ethyl-2-propanol (tert- Butyl alcohol) OH OH OH cis- 3-Methylcyclohexanol OH OH Bicyclo[4.4.0]decan-3-ol 1 4 5 8 10 9 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 6 7 6 Numbering of the bicyclic ring takes  precedence over the location of -OH
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
10- 10- 6 Nomenclature of Alcohols Nomenclature of Alcohols Compounds containing more than one OH group are named diols, triols, etc. CH 3 CHCH 2 HO OH CH 2 CH 2 OH OH CH 2 CHCH 2 HO HO OH 1,2-Ethanediol (Ethylene glycol) 1,2-Propanediol (Propylene glycol) 1,2,3-Propanetriol (Glycerol, Glycerine)
Background image of page 6
10- 10- 7 Nomenclature of Alcohols Nomenclature of Alcohols Unsaturated alcohols show the double bond by changing the infix from -an- to -en- -en- show the the OH group by the suffix -ol -ol number the chain to give OH the lower number 1 2 3 4 5 6   ( E )-2-Hexene-1-ol ( trans-2 -Hexen-1-ol) HO
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
10- 10- 8 Physical Properties Physical Properties Alcohols are polar compounds they interact with themselves and with other polar compounds by dipole-dipole interactions Dipole-dipole interaction: Dipole-dipole interaction: the attraction between the positive end of one dipole and the negative end of another O H H H C H
Background image of page 8
10- 10- 9 Physical Properties Physical Properties Hydrogen bonding Hydrogen bonding: when the positive end of one dipole is an H bonded to F, O, or N (atoms of high electronegativity) and the other end is F, O, or N the strength of hydrogen bonding in water is approximately 21 kJ (5 kcal)/mol hydrogen bonds are considerably weaker than covalent bonds nonetheless, they can have a significant effect on physical properties
Background image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
10- 10- 10 10 Hydrogen Bonding Hydrogen Bonding
Background image of page 10
10- 10- 11 11 Physical Properties Physical Properties Ethanol and dimethyl ether are constitutional isomers.
Background image of page 11

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 12
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 03/21/2008 for the course CHEM 261 taught by Professor Austell during the Spring '08 term at UNC.

Page1 / 73

chapter10 - Organic Chemistry William H. Brown Christopher...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 12. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online