I didn.docx - I didnt hear you say that Oh is that what you...

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“I didn’t hear you say that.” “Oh, is that what you meant?” “Gosh, I’m sorry, I thought you meant . . .” “I’m afraid you must have misunderstood me. What I said was . . .” Unfortunately for the sake of understanding between individuals, these statements are uttered far too frequently within organizations on a typical day. A number of stumbling blocks can trip up effective communication. Understanding the principal communication barriers can assist you in avoiding or overcoming them in the future. These barriers result from 14 factors, as illustrated in Table 4.1. LYING Lying, the deliberate deception of others to their detriment or your gain, is an obvious barrier to communication.1 In some situations lying is a form of aggressive behavior that may lead to workplace violence (see Chapter 16).2 People seem quite able to lie without instructions, although some are more skilled at it than others. The challenge then becomes one of being able to detect liars. Although no method will detect all liars, certain signs give an indication of whether or not someone is lying. These signals can be divided into two groups: facial indicators and general indicators. Facial Indicators The facial indicators of lying include (1) variables involving the eye area and (2) facial expression balance. The eyes can indicate lying through eye contact, blink rate, and pupil dilation.3 Many people believe that a liar will be unable to maintain eye contact for an extended time. Actually, accomplished liars are quite good at this because eye contact is relatively easy to control consciously. However, blink rate and pupil dilation are a different story. People who are lying may blink more often than people who are telling the truth, and it is difficult to stop the eyes from blinking involuntarily. Pupil dilation is virtually impossible to control. Although it is harder to observe pupil dilation consciously, we are typically attuned to it subconsciously. A high state of emotional arousal causes the pupils to enlarge; when we are unhappy, the pupils constrict. A lack of facial expression balance can also indicate that someone may be lying. Facial expression balance refers to symmetry of expression on a truthful person’s face. When someone is lying, the two sides of the face may not match. Because the liar is using a false facial expression it is more difficult to get it right, the two sides may not exactly match, and a clue is provided that the s IMPROVING COMMUNICATIONS AND MANAGING CONFLICT 115 # 100920 Cust: PH/OH Au: Drafke Pg. No. 115 Title: The Human Side of Organizations 10/e Server: C/K Short / Normal DESIGN SERVICES OF S4CARLISLE Publishing Services Although this man may tell the person on the other end that he knows what the caller is referring to, his face and hand gestures reveal the truth—he doesn’t know. Source: Courtesy of WavebreakmediaMicro/Fotolia. Certain people blush just from being talked to. Comparisons between these (and other) indicators and what the person is saying can provide insight into whether or not the person is lying. General Indicators Other indicators
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