pb3.doc - Orkut Buyukkokten Hector Garcia-Molina Andreas...

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Accordion Summarization for End-Game Browsing on PDAs and Cellular Phones Orkut Buyukkokten, Hector Garcia-Molina, Andreas Paepcke Digital Libraries Lab (InfoLab), Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305 {orkut, hector, paepcke}@cs.stanford.edu ABSTRACT We demonstrate a new browsing technique for devices with small displays such as PDAs or cellular phones. We concentrate on end-game browsing, where the user is close to or on the target page. We make browsing more efficient and easier by Accordion Summarization. In this technique the Web page is first represented as a short summary. The user can then drill down to discover relevant parts of the page. If desired, keywords can be highlighted and exposed automatically. We discuss our techniques, architecture, interface facilities, and the result of user evaluations. We measured a 57% improvement in browsing speed and 75% reduction in input effort. Keywords PDA (Personal Digital Assistant), WWW (World-Wide Web), HTML, WML, WAP INTRODUCTION PDAs provide convenient and portable access to a wealth of information. But the very portability of PDAs poses a formidable design challenge: How do we present information effectively on small devices such as a Palm Pilot, or a cellular phone? The problem is compounded because most of the information today is organized for large displays that are connected to high bandwidth links. Previous studies indicate that information retrieval tasks on the Web are much harder to complete on devices with small displays [15]. When we try to render a Web page on a small display, viewing becomes a huge burden because of the excessive scrolling effort. If we render the page as a regular desktop browser, four-way scrolling can be used. However, four-way scrolling is very annoying since the user needs to scroll the display for each line s/he reads. On the other hand, two-way scrolling requires clipping and wrapping the text, resulting in increased Web page length. One solution is to prepare special information feeds that serve information in smaller chunks, anticipating small display areas. The wireless Palm VII model uses this approach with its "web clippings" [21]. These information pages are marked up in a subset of HTML. The pages are compiled into a compact format that can be decoded on the Palm VII. Another example for the special information feed approach is the Wireless Access Protocol (WAP), which includes its own markup language to replace HTML on small displays. The special preparation of information to suit small displays can, of course, yield excellent results. The drawback of this approach is that vast amounts of HTML information remain inaccessible. Another approach is to miniaturize standard Web pages. This is done very well, for example, by Puma Technology's ProxiWeb [24] (formerly known as Top Gun Wingman). It converts all the pictures into small versions that can be shown on a Pilot [11]. This approach is especially useful when a user has found the main page s/he is looking for, and wishes to see all the details. The miniaturization
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