BIO211Chapt16open.docx - Chapter 16 The Endocrine System...

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Chapter 16 - The Endocrine System Chapter Objectives Indicate important differences btw hormonal & neural body function controls. List endocrine organs & location. Distinguish hormones, paracrines & autocrines. Explain how hormone release is regulated. Describe 2 mechanisms by which hormones effect target tissues. List 3 interaction types of different hormones acting on same target cell. Describe the anatomical/functional relationship btw hypothalamus & pituitary gland. List & describe the chief effects of anterior pituitary hormones. Discuss the posterior pituitary structure & effects of hormones released. Describe the effects of hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Indicate the general functions of parathyroid hormone. List hormones produced by the adrenal gland & their effects. Briefly describe the importance of melatonin. Compare/contrast effects of pancreatic hormones. List the hormones, and their roles, secreted by the gonads & placenta. Name a hormone produced by the heart. Identify the location of enteroendocrine cells. State the endocrine function of the kidney, skin, adipose tissue, bone & thymus. The Endocrine System – The Video The Endocrine System – Overview The endocrine systems acts w/the nervous system to ___________cell activity influences metabolic activities via ______________________ response ___________ , but ___________ vs. nervous system ______________________ - study of hormones & endocrine organs/glands Endocrine glands control & integrate: reproduction growth & development maintenance blood electrolyte, H 2 O & nutrient levels regulation of cellular metabolism & E balance immune system mobilization Endocrine glands: pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal & pineal glands ______________________ actually a ______________________ : brain and gland some glands are ___________ & ___________ : pancreas, gonads & placenta ______________________ produce ___________ - ductless
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______________________ secrete nonhormonal substances into ___________ other tissues & organs that produce hormones or hormone-like substances: adipose cells, thymus & cells in walls of SI, stomach, kidneys & heart The Endocrine System – Overview Figure 16.1 The Endocrine System – Chemical Messengers Chemical messengers classified as hormones, autocrines & paracrines ___________ : long-distance signals; travel in ___________ , secreted by ___________ ___________ : molecules exert effect on ___________ secretory cells ___________ : local-acting substances- affect ______________________ autocrines & paracrines - ___________ messengers; _______ part of endocrine system Main classes of hormones: _________________ – amino acid derivatives, peptides & proteins _________________ = steroids, ________________ & _______________ ; biosynthesis from ___________ The Endocrine System – Hormone Action Hormones circulate systemically - but only target cells affected hormones are ___________ = directed messages target cells must have ______________________ in cells (PM or inside) Hormones alter ___________ activity, action may be due to: Δ PM permeability &/or MP by opening/closing ___________ s timulate ___________ /protein synthesis (gene expression) modify enzyme activity – ___________ /___________ induce secretory activity, stimulate mitosis, etc Hormone interactions w/___________ are dependent on their ___________ ___________ nature &/also receptor ___________ ______________________ (exc. thyroid hormone) bind to ___________
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signal via G protein ______________________ kinases ______________________ = steroid & thyroid hormones traverse PM, bind to i______________________ - directly ___________ The Endocrine System – Peptide Receptor Binding Figure 16.2 The Endocrine System – Receptors & 2 nd Messengers Many PM receptors use an _________________________________ system
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