CORRECTION SUBMITION 6.docx - Introduction Terrorism has...

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Introduction Terrorism has become a crisis in which most countries find themselves entangled in the present world. It could collectively be termed a global phenomenon due to the impact and menace it has triggered to the stability of many nations be it economic, social and even political stability that determines how people are governed (Abrahms, 2012). Most governments in the world have now been forced to devise ways to have impermeable security systems to counter terrorism since the attack that occurred on September 11, 2001, in the United States (Klein, 2007). The greatest challenge to this counterterrorism strategy lies with the metamorphosis of terror groups to achieve a different mission depending on their target (Hoffman, 2016). According to Clarke (2009), it is hard to come up with a comprehensive definition because one cannot be specific because of terrorists' targets, motives and methods differ so broadly from case- to-case. There is also a challenge of untangling the overlaps within which each of these categories that makes it complex (Hoffman, 2016). For this study, terrorism can be defined as the calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of illegal violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are political, religious, or ideological (Department of Defense Dictionary of Military Terms, 2012). Africa, in particular, is not spared by this threat of terrorism and studies now show that indeed Africa is a vulnerable continent when it comes to the fight against terrorism and this has been attributed to some reasons (Kaufman, 2012). According to Kaufman (2012), porous borders, weak security systems, and weak governments are unable to target the terror groups, are just some of the reason why Africa is most affected by terrorism. Some well-known terror groups are carrying out their operations in the sub-Saharan region, for example, the Boko Haram in Nigeria, Al-Shabaab in Somalia, Load's Resistance Army operating in Uganda and the Al-Qaida
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group operating in Islamic Maghreb operations in the Sahara (Kaufman, 2012; Lutz, 2013). In Nigeria, Boko Haram carried out an attack in August 2011 at the United Nations house in Abuja killing 21 people and leaving more than 50 people death (Shuaibu et al. 2015). According to Umejei (2011), the attack in Nigeria had an effect on direct economic costs and an outcome which was immediate productivity. The immediate effects included loss of working hours to bureaucratic security checks in areas like airports, and on the other hand, direct costs included investor confidence and reductions when it comes to foreign direct investments (FDI, 2016). Indeed Kenya saw itself as a terror target after the 1998 bombing of the American embassy in Nairobi by the Al- Qaeda based group (Cilliers, 2015). This attack resulted in the destruction of government buildings, with more than 100 people left dead and several others injured (Cilliers, 2015). In 2002 the Al- Qaeda group attacked a hotel in Kikambala in Mombasa after missing their mission to attack an Israeli hotel as their primary target were Israeli tourists (Cilliers, 2015).
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