Kipkemboi_An assessment of the socio-economic impacts of terrorism in East Africa.pdf

Kipkemboi_An assessment of the socio-economic impacts of terrorism in East Africa.pdf

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UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI INSTITUTE OF DIPLOMACY AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AN ASSESSMENT OF THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF TERRORISM IN EAST AFRICA : A CASE OF AL SHABAAB IN KENYA BY ROTICH ABDO KIPKEMBOI R50/ 63781/2010 SUPERVISOR DR. OCHIENG KAMUDHAYI A RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN INTERNATIONAL STUDIES OCTOBER, 2013
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ii DECLARATION This research study is my original work and has not been presented to any other examination body. No part of this research should be reproduced without my consent or that of the University of Nairobi. Signed: ........................................................... Date ........................................ ROTICH ABDO KIPKEMBOI R50/63781/2010 This research project has been submitted for examination with my approval as University Supervisor. Signed: ........................................................... Date ........................................ DR. OCHIENG KAMUDHAYI
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iii DEDICATION This research work is dedicated to my parents, who are also my mentors.
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iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to extend my sincere gratitude, first to the Lord, Almighty who gave me the endurance needed to tread the rocky path of completing this project. Secondly, to all University of Nairobi lecturers with special regards to Dr. Ochieng for guiding me all the way to its successful completion. Lastly, to my friend Rahab W. Njoroge who kept me going through encouragement and never letting me give up during the entire period of this project.
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v TABLE OF CONTENTS Declaration .......................................................................................................................... ii Dedication .......................................................................................................................... iii Acknowledgement ............................................................................................................. iv List of Tables .................................................................................................................... vii List of Figures .................................................................................................................. viii Abstract .......................................................................................................................................... ix CHAPTER ONE Introduction and Background to the Study 1.1Background to the Study ................................................................................................ 1 1.2. Statement of the Research Problem ............................................................................. 3 1.3. General Objectives ....................................................................................................... 4 1.3.1. Specific Objectives ....................................................................................... 4 1.3.2. Research Questions ....................................................................................... 4 1.4. Literature Review ............................................................................................ 4 1.4.1 International Terrorism .................................................................................. 4 1.4.2. Terrorism as a Crime and State Terrorism .................................................. 10 1.4.3. Terrorism and Religion ............................................................................... 14 1.5. Justification of the Study ........................................................................................... 17 1.6. Theoretical Framework .............................................................................................. 18 1.7 Methodology ............................................................................................................... 28 1.7.1 Research Design .......................................................................................... 30 1.7.2 Target Population ......................................................................................... 31 1.7.3 Sample Design ............................................................................................. 31 1.7.4 Data Collection ............................................................................................ 31 1.7.5 Data Analysis and Presentation ................................................................... 32 1.8. Chapter Summary ...................................................................................................... 32 CHAPTER TWO International Terrorism and International law 2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 34 2.2. Criminalization of Terrorism in International Law ................................................... 34 2.3. Islam as a Religion and Terrorism? ........................................................................... 37 2.4. Causes of International Terrorism ............................................................................. 43 2.5. Impact of International Terrorism on Society and Economy .................................... 47 CHAPTER THREE Terrorism in Africa 3.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 50 3.2 Terrorism in the Context of the African Continent ..................................................... 50 3.3. The Rise of International Terrorism and Its Effects in Africa ................................... 51
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vi 3.4. Al-Shabaab Threats in Kenya .................................................................................... 55 3.4.1. Background of Terrorism Attacks in Kenya ............................................... 55 3.4.2 2012 Al-Shabaab Attacks ............................................................................ 59 3.4.3. Current Security Impacts of Terrorism in Kenya ....................................... 61 3.4.4. Kidnap Case Studies in Kenya .................................................................... 61 3.5. Governments’ Reaction to Kidnapping ..................................................................... 64 CHAPTER FOUR Data Analysis, Presentation and Interpretation 4.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 65 4.2 Data Analysis .............................................................................................................. 65 4.2.1. Data Analysis .............................................................................................. 65 CHAPTER FIVE Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations 5.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 94 5.2 General Information and Answers to Research Questions ......................................... 94 5.2.1. To Find out the Impacts of Terrorism on the Regional Integration Efforts by East African Countries .......................................................................................... 94 5.2.2. To Assess the Impacts of Terrorism to Kenya’s Economy
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